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Enhanced emotional reactivity after selective REM sleep deprivation in humans: an fMRI study.

Rosales-Lagarde A, Armony JL, Del Río-Portilla Y, Trejo-Martínez D, Conde R, Corsi-Cabrera M - Front Behav Neurosci (2012)

Bottom Line: Behaviorally, emotional reactivity was enhanced relative to baseline (BL) in the REM deprived group only.In contrast, activity in these areas remained the same level or even increased in the REM-D group, compared to their BL level.Taken together, these results suggest that lack of REM sleep in humans is associated with enhanced emotional reactivity, both at behavioral and neural levels, and thus highlight the specific role of REM sleep in regulating the neural substrates for emotional responsiveness.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Psychology, Laboratory of Sleep, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México México DF, México.

ABSTRACT
Converging evidence from animal and human studies suggest that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep modulates emotional processing. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of selective REM sleep deprivation (REM-D) on emotional responses to threatening visual stimuli and their brain correlates using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty healthy subjects were randomly assigned to two groups: selective REM-D, by awakening them at each REM sleep onset, or non-rapid eye movement sleep interruptions (NREM-I) as control for potential non-specific effects of awakenings and lack of sleep. In a within-subject design, a visual emotional reactivity task was performed in the scanner before and 24 h after sleep manipulation. Behaviorally, emotional reactivity was enhanced relative to baseline (BL) in the REM deprived group only. In terms of fMRI signal, there was, as expected, an overall decrease in activity in the NREM-I group when subjects performed the task the second time, particularly in regions involved in emotional processing, such as occipital and temporal areas, as well as in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, involved in top-down emotion regulation. In contrast, activity in these areas remained the same level or even increased in the REM-D group, compared to their BL level. Taken together, these results suggest that lack of REM sleep in humans is associated with enhanced emotional reactivity, both at behavioral and neural levels, and thus highlight the specific role of REM sleep in regulating the neural substrates for emotional responsiveness.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematic of the Emotional Reactivity Task.
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Figure 1: Schematic of the Emotional Reactivity Task.

Mentions: The emotional reactivity task (Figure 1) involved the presentation of 60 pictures from the International Affective Pictures System (Lang et al., 2005). Subjects were instructed to imagine themselves as part of the scene and react to the situation as soon as possible either by defending themselves (i.e., firing a bullet) or not, by pressing one of two buttons with the right index or middle finger (counterbalanced across sessions and subjects). Thus, a specific response was required for every slide in order to control for motor response activations. Pictures were selected according to the normative valence ratings and were classified into two extreme valence categories, 40 negative valence pictures (20 directly threatening the observer and 20 threatening a third party, mean valence = 3.46), and 20 non-menacing positive pictures (mean valence = 7.19). Trials were assigned a posteriori to one of two categories based on each subject's response: those eliciting a defense response were labeled as high emotional reactivity trials (HER) and non-defending responses as low emotional reactivity trials (LER). All pictures were shown in a randomized order. Each picture was presented for 700 ms preceded by a fixation point (500 ms) at the center of the screen and followed by a black screen. The duration of the inter-trial black screen varied randomly between 3.5 and 5.5 s.


Enhanced emotional reactivity after selective REM sleep deprivation in humans: an fMRI study.

Rosales-Lagarde A, Armony JL, Del Río-Portilla Y, Trejo-Martínez D, Conde R, Corsi-Cabrera M - Front Behav Neurosci (2012)

Schematic of the Emotional Reactivity Task.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3376727&req=5

Figure 1: Schematic of the Emotional Reactivity Task.
Mentions: The emotional reactivity task (Figure 1) involved the presentation of 60 pictures from the International Affective Pictures System (Lang et al., 2005). Subjects were instructed to imagine themselves as part of the scene and react to the situation as soon as possible either by defending themselves (i.e., firing a bullet) or not, by pressing one of two buttons with the right index or middle finger (counterbalanced across sessions and subjects). Thus, a specific response was required for every slide in order to control for motor response activations. Pictures were selected according to the normative valence ratings and were classified into two extreme valence categories, 40 negative valence pictures (20 directly threatening the observer and 20 threatening a third party, mean valence = 3.46), and 20 non-menacing positive pictures (mean valence = 7.19). Trials were assigned a posteriori to one of two categories based on each subject's response: those eliciting a defense response were labeled as high emotional reactivity trials (HER) and non-defending responses as low emotional reactivity trials (LER). All pictures were shown in a randomized order. Each picture was presented for 700 ms preceded by a fixation point (500 ms) at the center of the screen and followed by a black screen. The duration of the inter-trial black screen varied randomly between 3.5 and 5.5 s.

Bottom Line: Behaviorally, emotional reactivity was enhanced relative to baseline (BL) in the REM deprived group only.In contrast, activity in these areas remained the same level or even increased in the REM-D group, compared to their BL level.Taken together, these results suggest that lack of REM sleep in humans is associated with enhanced emotional reactivity, both at behavioral and neural levels, and thus highlight the specific role of REM sleep in regulating the neural substrates for emotional responsiveness.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Psychology, Laboratory of Sleep, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México México DF, México.

ABSTRACT
Converging evidence from animal and human studies suggest that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep modulates emotional processing. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of selective REM sleep deprivation (REM-D) on emotional responses to threatening visual stimuli and their brain correlates using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty healthy subjects were randomly assigned to two groups: selective REM-D, by awakening them at each REM sleep onset, or non-rapid eye movement sleep interruptions (NREM-I) as control for potential non-specific effects of awakenings and lack of sleep. In a within-subject design, a visual emotional reactivity task was performed in the scanner before and 24 h after sleep manipulation. Behaviorally, emotional reactivity was enhanced relative to baseline (BL) in the REM deprived group only. In terms of fMRI signal, there was, as expected, an overall decrease in activity in the NREM-I group when subjects performed the task the second time, particularly in regions involved in emotional processing, such as occipital and temporal areas, as well as in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, involved in top-down emotion regulation. In contrast, activity in these areas remained the same level or even increased in the REM-D group, compared to their BL level. Taken together, these results suggest that lack of REM sleep in humans is associated with enhanced emotional reactivity, both at behavioral and neural levels, and thus highlight the specific role of REM sleep in regulating the neural substrates for emotional responsiveness.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus