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Interferometric fiber optic sensors.

Lee BH, Kim YH, Park KS, Eom JB, Kim MJ, Rho BS, Choi HY - Sensors (Basel) (2012)

Bottom Line: Some of the simple to fabricate but exceedingly effective Fabry-Perot interferometers, implemented in both extrinsic and intrinsic structures, are discussed.Also, a wide variety of Mach-Zehnder and Michelson interferometric sensors based on photonic crystal fibers are introduced along with their remarkable sensing performances.Finally, the simultaneous multi-parameter sensing capability of a pair of long period fiber grating (LPG) is presented in two types of structures; one is the Mach-Zehnder interferometer formed in a double cladding fiber and the other is the highly sensitive Sagnac interferometer cascaded with an LPG pair.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Information and Communications, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Buk-gu, Gwangju, Korea. leebh@gist.ac.kr

ABSTRACT
Fiber optic interferometers to sense various physical parameters including temperature, strain, pressure, and refractive index have been widely investigated. They can be categorized into four types: Fabry-Perot, Mach-Zehnder, Michelson, and Sagnac. In this paper, each type of interferometric sensor is reviewed in terms of operating principles, fabrication methods, and application fields. Some specific examples of recently reported interferometeric sensor technologies are presented in detail to show their large potential in practical applications. Some of the simple to fabricate but exceedingly effective Fabry-Perot interferometers, implemented in both extrinsic and intrinsic structures, are discussed. Also, a wide variety of Mach-Zehnder and Michelson interferometric sensors based on photonic crystal fibers are introduced along with their remarkable sensing performances. Finally, the simultaneous multi-parameter sensing capability of a pair of long period fiber grating (LPG) is presented in two types of structures; one is the Mach-Zehnder interferometer formed in a double cladding fiber and the other is the highly sensitive Sagnac interferometer cascaded with an LPG pair.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(a) Basic configuration of a Michelson interferometer and (b) schematic of a compact in-line Michelson interferometer.
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f9-sensors-12-02467: (a) Basic configuration of a Michelson interferometer and (b) schematic of a compact in-line Michelson interferometer.

Mentions: Fiber-optic sensors based on Michelson interferometers (MIs) are quite similar to MZIs. The basic concept is the interference between the beams in two arms, but each beam is reflected at the end of each arm in an MI as shown in Figure 9(a) [60–63]. In fact, an MI is like a half of an MZI in configuration. Thus, the fabrication method and the operation principle of MIs are almost the same as MZIs. The main difference is the existence of a reflector(s). Since MIs use reflection modes, they are compact and handy in practical uses and installation. Multiplexing capability with parallel connection of several sensors is another beneficial point of MIs. However, it is essential to adjust the fiber length difference between the reference arm and the sensing arm of an MI within the coherence length of the light source. An in-line configuration of MI is also possible as shown with Figure 9(b). A part of the core mode beam is coupled to the cladding mode(s), which is reflected along with the uncoupled core mode beam by the common reflector at the end of the fiber.


Interferometric fiber optic sensors.

Lee BH, Kim YH, Park KS, Eom JB, Kim MJ, Rho BS, Choi HY - Sensors (Basel) (2012)

(a) Basic configuration of a Michelson interferometer and (b) schematic of a compact in-line Michelson interferometer.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3376629&req=5

f9-sensors-12-02467: (a) Basic configuration of a Michelson interferometer and (b) schematic of a compact in-line Michelson interferometer.
Mentions: Fiber-optic sensors based on Michelson interferometers (MIs) are quite similar to MZIs. The basic concept is the interference between the beams in two arms, but each beam is reflected at the end of each arm in an MI as shown in Figure 9(a) [60–63]. In fact, an MI is like a half of an MZI in configuration. Thus, the fabrication method and the operation principle of MIs are almost the same as MZIs. The main difference is the existence of a reflector(s). Since MIs use reflection modes, they are compact and handy in practical uses and installation. Multiplexing capability with parallel connection of several sensors is another beneficial point of MIs. However, it is essential to adjust the fiber length difference between the reference arm and the sensing arm of an MI within the coherence length of the light source. An in-line configuration of MI is also possible as shown with Figure 9(b). A part of the core mode beam is coupled to the cladding mode(s), which is reflected along with the uncoupled core mode beam by the common reflector at the end of the fiber.

Bottom Line: Some of the simple to fabricate but exceedingly effective Fabry-Perot interferometers, implemented in both extrinsic and intrinsic structures, are discussed.Also, a wide variety of Mach-Zehnder and Michelson interferometric sensors based on photonic crystal fibers are introduced along with their remarkable sensing performances.Finally, the simultaneous multi-parameter sensing capability of a pair of long period fiber grating (LPG) is presented in two types of structures; one is the Mach-Zehnder interferometer formed in a double cladding fiber and the other is the highly sensitive Sagnac interferometer cascaded with an LPG pair.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Information and Communications, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Buk-gu, Gwangju, Korea. leebh@gist.ac.kr

ABSTRACT
Fiber optic interferometers to sense various physical parameters including temperature, strain, pressure, and refractive index have been widely investigated. They can be categorized into four types: Fabry-Perot, Mach-Zehnder, Michelson, and Sagnac. In this paper, each type of interferometric sensor is reviewed in terms of operating principles, fabrication methods, and application fields. Some specific examples of recently reported interferometeric sensor technologies are presented in detail to show their large potential in practical applications. Some of the simple to fabricate but exceedingly effective Fabry-Perot interferometers, implemented in both extrinsic and intrinsic structures, are discussed. Also, a wide variety of Mach-Zehnder and Michelson interferometric sensors based on photonic crystal fibers are introduced along with their remarkable sensing performances. Finally, the simultaneous multi-parameter sensing capability of a pair of long period fiber grating (LPG) is presented in two types of structures; one is the Mach-Zehnder interferometer formed in a double cladding fiber and the other is the highly sensitive Sagnac interferometer cascaded with an LPG pair.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus