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Quorum sensing and bacterial social interactions in biofilms.

Li YH, Tian X - Sensors (Basel) (2012)

Bottom Line: Many bacteria are known to regulate their cooperative activities and physiological processes through a mechanism called quorum sensing (QS), in which bacterial cells communicate with each other by releasing, sensing and responding to small diffusible signal molecules.The ability of bacteria to communicate and behave as a group for social interactions like a multi-cellular organism has provided significant benefits to bacteria in host colonization, formation of biofilms, defense against competitors, and adaptation to changing environments.Therefore, understanding the molecular details of quorum sensing mechanisms and their controlled social activities may open a new avenue for controlling bacterial infections.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada. yung-hua.li@dal.ca

ABSTRACT
Many bacteria are known to regulate their cooperative activities and physiological processes through a mechanism called quorum sensing (QS), in which bacterial cells communicate with each other by releasing, sensing and responding to small diffusible signal molecules. The ability of bacteria to communicate and behave as a group for social interactions like a multi-cellular organism has provided significant benefits to bacteria in host colonization, formation of biofilms, defense against competitors, and adaptation to changing environments. Importantly, many QS-controlled activities have been involved in the virulence and pathogenic potential of bacteria. Therefore, understanding the molecular details of quorum sensing mechanisms and their controlled social activities may open a new avenue for controlling bacterial infections.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

A schematic diagram indicating two types of signaling peptide-mediated quorum-sensing systems in Gram-positive bacterium, S. mutans. The ComCDE quorum-sensing system primarily regulates production of bacteriocins and bacteriocin self-immunity proteins, while the newly identified ComRS quorum-sensing system proximally controls competence development via the control of sigX that encodes an alternative sigma factor, SigX (ComX). CSP is ComC signal peptide; XIP is mature sigX-induced peptide. Opp/Aml is an ABC transporter (peptide importer).
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f2-sensors-12-02519: A schematic diagram indicating two types of signaling peptide-mediated quorum-sensing systems in Gram-positive bacterium, S. mutans. The ComCDE quorum-sensing system primarily regulates production of bacteriocins and bacteriocin self-immunity proteins, while the newly identified ComRS quorum-sensing system proximally controls competence development via the control of sigX that encodes an alternative sigma factor, SigX (ComX). CSP is ComC signal peptide; XIP is mature sigX-induced peptide. Opp/Aml is an ABC transporter (peptide importer).

Mentions: In contrast to those in Gram-negative bacteria, there are two types of quorum-sensing systems identified in Gram-positive bacteria [10,31–37]. In the first type, quorum-sensing systems generally consist of three components (Figure 2), a signaling peptide known as autoinducing peptide (AIP) and a two-component signal transduction system (TCSTS) that specifically detects and responds to an AIP [7,10,26,31,32]. In further contrast to AHL signals, cell membrane is not permeable to AIP but rather a dedicated oligopeptide transporter, largely an ABC transporter, is required to secrete AIP into the extracellular environment [10,31,32]. Gram-positive bacteria normally produce a signal peptide precursor, which is cleaved from the double-glycine consensus sequence and the active AIP is then exported through a peptide-specific ABC transporter into their environments. Most of signaling peptides in Gram-positive bacteria typically consist of 5–25 amino acids and some contain unusual side chains [31,32]. Detection of signaling peptides in Gram-positive bacteria is mediated by a two-component signal transduction system, which consists of a membrane-associated, histidine kinase protein sensing the AIP, and a cytoplasmic response regulator protein enabling the cell to respond to the peptide via regulation of gene expression [10,26,31,32].


Quorum sensing and bacterial social interactions in biofilms.

Li YH, Tian X - Sensors (Basel) (2012)

A schematic diagram indicating two types of signaling peptide-mediated quorum-sensing systems in Gram-positive bacterium, S. mutans. The ComCDE quorum-sensing system primarily regulates production of bacteriocins and bacteriocin self-immunity proteins, while the newly identified ComRS quorum-sensing system proximally controls competence development via the control of sigX that encodes an alternative sigma factor, SigX (ComX). CSP is ComC signal peptide; XIP is mature sigX-induced peptide. Opp/Aml is an ABC transporter (peptide importer).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3376616&req=5

f2-sensors-12-02519: A schematic diagram indicating two types of signaling peptide-mediated quorum-sensing systems in Gram-positive bacterium, S. mutans. The ComCDE quorum-sensing system primarily regulates production of bacteriocins and bacteriocin self-immunity proteins, while the newly identified ComRS quorum-sensing system proximally controls competence development via the control of sigX that encodes an alternative sigma factor, SigX (ComX). CSP is ComC signal peptide; XIP is mature sigX-induced peptide. Opp/Aml is an ABC transporter (peptide importer).
Mentions: In contrast to those in Gram-negative bacteria, there are two types of quorum-sensing systems identified in Gram-positive bacteria [10,31–37]. In the first type, quorum-sensing systems generally consist of three components (Figure 2), a signaling peptide known as autoinducing peptide (AIP) and a two-component signal transduction system (TCSTS) that specifically detects and responds to an AIP [7,10,26,31,32]. In further contrast to AHL signals, cell membrane is not permeable to AIP but rather a dedicated oligopeptide transporter, largely an ABC transporter, is required to secrete AIP into the extracellular environment [10,31,32]. Gram-positive bacteria normally produce a signal peptide precursor, which is cleaved from the double-glycine consensus sequence and the active AIP is then exported through a peptide-specific ABC transporter into their environments. Most of signaling peptides in Gram-positive bacteria typically consist of 5–25 amino acids and some contain unusual side chains [31,32]. Detection of signaling peptides in Gram-positive bacteria is mediated by a two-component signal transduction system, which consists of a membrane-associated, histidine kinase protein sensing the AIP, and a cytoplasmic response regulator protein enabling the cell to respond to the peptide via regulation of gene expression [10,26,31,32].

Bottom Line: Many bacteria are known to regulate their cooperative activities and physiological processes through a mechanism called quorum sensing (QS), in which bacterial cells communicate with each other by releasing, sensing and responding to small diffusible signal molecules.The ability of bacteria to communicate and behave as a group for social interactions like a multi-cellular organism has provided significant benefits to bacteria in host colonization, formation of biofilms, defense against competitors, and adaptation to changing environments.Therefore, understanding the molecular details of quorum sensing mechanisms and their controlled social activities may open a new avenue for controlling bacterial infections.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada. yung-hua.li@dal.ca

ABSTRACT
Many bacteria are known to regulate their cooperative activities and physiological processes through a mechanism called quorum sensing (QS), in which bacterial cells communicate with each other by releasing, sensing and responding to small diffusible signal molecules. The ability of bacteria to communicate and behave as a group for social interactions like a multi-cellular organism has provided significant benefits to bacteria in host colonization, formation of biofilms, defense against competitors, and adaptation to changing environments. Importantly, many QS-controlled activities have been involved in the virulence and pathogenic potential of bacteria. Therefore, understanding the molecular details of quorum sensing mechanisms and their controlled social activities may open a new avenue for controlling bacterial infections.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus