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Perch and its parasites as heavy metal biomonitors in a freshwater environment: the case study of the Ružín water reservoir, Slovakia.

Brázová T, Torres J, Eira C, Hanzelová V, Miklisová D, Salamún P - Sensors (Basel) (2012)

Bottom Line: Zinc was found to be the dominant element and its antagonistic interaction with copper was confirmed.Acanthocephalans, however, seem to be superior for heavy metal monitoring, also demonstrated under experimental conditions.Present results also indicate the decreasing heavy metal burden of the reservoir and its gradual recovery in the course of time.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Parasitology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Košice, Slovakia. barciova@saske.sk

ABSTRACT
Heavy metal concentrations were determined in 43 perches (Perca fluviatilis) and in two of its most common parasites, the acanthocephalan Acanthocephalus lucii and the cestode Proteocephalus percae, collected in the period 2009-2010 from Ružín, a seriously polluted water reservoir in Slovakia. Samples of muscle, liver, kidney, brain, male and female reproductive organs and adipose tissue of fish and both parasites were analyzed for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn, by ICP-MS. Mean concentrations of individual heavy metals in all fish samples decreased in the order zinc > copper > manganese > mercury > arsenic > chromium > cadmium > nickel > lead. Zinc was found to be the dominant element and its antagonistic interaction with copper was confirmed. The kidney was a key target organ receiving the highest mean concentrations of all analyzed metals, but some metals showed specific affinity for particular tissues. In terms of human health, concentration of Hg in fish muscle, which exceeded more than two-times its maximum level admitted in foodstuffs in European countries, is of great importance and should be taken into account. Bioaccumulation factors (C([parasite])/C([fish tissue])) calculated for all elements indicated much higher detection skills of A. lucii and P. percae parasites than fish organs and hence, present results allow proposing both parasite models as useful tools to monitor aquatic environmental quality. Acanthocephalans, however, seem to be superior for heavy metal monitoring, also demonstrated under experimental conditions. Present results also indicate the decreasing heavy metal burden of the reservoir and its gradual recovery in the course of time.

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Scanning electron micrographs illustrating Acanthocephalus lucii (a,b) and Proteocephalus percae (c,d). a—proboscis with hooks; b—tegument with orifices of the lacunary system; c—scolex and d—tegument with microtriches. Scale-bars: a—100 μm; b, d—1 μm; c—10 μm.
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f2-sensors-12-03068: Scanning electron micrographs illustrating Acanthocephalus lucii (a,b) and Proteocephalus percae (c,d). a—proboscis with hooks; b—tegument with orifices of the lacunary system; c—scolex and d—tegument with microtriches. Scale-bars: a—100 μm; b, d—1 μm; c—10 μm.

Mentions: Fish were transported in water from the reservoir to the laboratory, where they were killed by severing the spinal cord. The perch were sampled and dissected with the help of stainless steel instruments and MiliQ water. The fork length and wet weight of each fish was recorded prior to dissection. Samples of the muscles, kidney, liver, brain, hard roe (fully ripe internal egg masses in the ovaries) and soft roe (the testis filled with mature sperm) and the adipose tissue were taken from all individuals. These samples were stored individually in glass vials and deep frozen until posterior processing for trace element analysis. Fish digestive tracts were screened for parasites using a stereomicroscope. Acanthocephalans (Acanthocephalus lucii) and cestodes (Proteocephalus percae) (Figure 2(a–d)) representative of all infected fish were frozen separately for metal analysis. The adult intestine acanthocephalan A. lucii was detected in 35 perch indicating a prevalence of 82.3% and a mean intensity of 3 ± 7.9 (1–48) specimens. The cestode P. percae was detected in 28 perch indicating a prevalence of 64.7% with a mean intensity of 1.4 ± 1.63 (1–7) specimens in the 43 fish hosts studied. Two perch were free of infection. All specimens were isolated from each fish intestine, washed in ultrapure water, counted and frozen individually for further trace element analysis.


Perch and its parasites as heavy metal biomonitors in a freshwater environment: the case study of the Ružín water reservoir, Slovakia.

Brázová T, Torres J, Eira C, Hanzelová V, Miklisová D, Salamún P - Sensors (Basel) (2012)

Scanning electron micrographs illustrating Acanthocephalus lucii (a,b) and Proteocephalus percae (c,d). a—proboscis with hooks; b—tegument with orifices of the lacunary system; c—scolex and d—tegument with microtriches. Scale-bars: a—100 μm; b, d—1 μm; c—10 μm.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3376578&req=5

f2-sensors-12-03068: Scanning electron micrographs illustrating Acanthocephalus lucii (a,b) and Proteocephalus percae (c,d). a—proboscis with hooks; b—tegument with orifices of the lacunary system; c—scolex and d—tegument with microtriches. Scale-bars: a—100 μm; b, d—1 μm; c—10 μm.
Mentions: Fish were transported in water from the reservoir to the laboratory, where they were killed by severing the spinal cord. The perch were sampled and dissected with the help of stainless steel instruments and MiliQ water. The fork length and wet weight of each fish was recorded prior to dissection. Samples of the muscles, kidney, liver, brain, hard roe (fully ripe internal egg masses in the ovaries) and soft roe (the testis filled with mature sperm) and the adipose tissue were taken from all individuals. These samples were stored individually in glass vials and deep frozen until posterior processing for trace element analysis. Fish digestive tracts were screened for parasites using a stereomicroscope. Acanthocephalans (Acanthocephalus lucii) and cestodes (Proteocephalus percae) (Figure 2(a–d)) representative of all infected fish were frozen separately for metal analysis. The adult intestine acanthocephalan A. lucii was detected in 35 perch indicating a prevalence of 82.3% and a mean intensity of 3 ± 7.9 (1–48) specimens. The cestode P. percae was detected in 28 perch indicating a prevalence of 64.7% with a mean intensity of 1.4 ± 1.63 (1–7) specimens in the 43 fish hosts studied. Two perch were free of infection. All specimens were isolated from each fish intestine, washed in ultrapure water, counted and frozen individually for further trace element analysis.

Bottom Line: Zinc was found to be the dominant element and its antagonistic interaction with copper was confirmed.Acanthocephalans, however, seem to be superior for heavy metal monitoring, also demonstrated under experimental conditions.Present results also indicate the decreasing heavy metal burden of the reservoir and its gradual recovery in the course of time.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Parasitology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Košice, Slovakia. barciova@saske.sk

ABSTRACT
Heavy metal concentrations were determined in 43 perches (Perca fluviatilis) and in two of its most common parasites, the acanthocephalan Acanthocephalus lucii and the cestode Proteocephalus percae, collected in the period 2009-2010 from Ružín, a seriously polluted water reservoir in Slovakia. Samples of muscle, liver, kidney, brain, male and female reproductive organs and adipose tissue of fish and both parasites were analyzed for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn, by ICP-MS. Mean concentrations of individual heavy metals in all fish samples decreased in the order zinc > copper > manganese > mercury > arsenic > chromium > cadmium > nickel > lead. Zinc was found to be the dominant element and its antagonistic interaction with copper was confirmed. The kidney was a key target organ receiving the highest mean concentrations of all analyzed metals, but some metals showed specific affinity for particular tissues. In terms of human health, concentration of Hg in fish muscle, which exceeded more than two-times its maximum level admitted in foodstuffs in European countries, is of great importance and should be taken into account. Bioaccumulation factors (C([parasite])/C([fish tissue])) calculated for all elements indicated much higher detection skills of A. lucii and P. percae parasites than fish organs and hence, present results allow proposing both parasite models as useful tools to monitor aquatic environmental quality. Acanthocephalans, however, seem to be superior for heavy metal monitoring, also demonstrated under experimental conditions. Present results also indicate the decreasing heavy metal burden of the reservoir and its gradual recovery in the course of time.

Show MeSH