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Comparative assessment of the effect of synthetic and natural fungicides on soil respiration.

Stefani A, Felício JD, de Andréa MM - Sensors (Basel) (2012)

Bottom Line: The effect of the synthetic fungicide chlorothalonil and a natural potential fungicide on the soil microbial activity was evaluated here by the substrate-induced respiration by addition of glucose (SIR), as bioindicator in two soils (Eutrophic Humic Gley-GHE and Typic Eutroferric Chernosol-AVEC).The (14)C-CO(2) produced by the microbial respiration was trapped in NaOH (0.1 M) which was changed each two hours during the first 10 h, and 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 28 days after the treatments.As the effects of the natural product were statistically small, this bioindicator indicates that the methanolic fraction of the Polymnia sonchifolia extract, which has fungicide properties, has no environmental effects.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Instituto Biológico, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
As toxic pesticide residues may persist in agricultural soils and cause environmental pollution, research on natural fungicides to replace the synthetic compounds is currently increasing. The effect of the synthetic fungicide chlorothalonil and a natural potential fungicide on the soil microbial activity was evaluated here by the substrate-induced respiration by addition of glucose (SIR), as bioindicator in two soils (Eutrophic Humic Gley-GHE and Typic Eutroferric Chernosol-AVEC). The induced soil respiration parameter was followed during 28 days after soil treatment either with chlorathalonil (11 μg·g(-1)), or the methanolic fraction from Polymnia sonchifolia extraction (300 μg·g(-1)), and (14)C-glucose (4.0 mg and 5.18 Bq of (14)C-glucose g(-1)). The (14)C-CO(2) produced by the microbial respiration was trapped in NaOH (0.1 M) which was changed each two hours during the first 10 h, and 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 28 days after the treatments. The methanolic fraction of the plant extract inhibited (2.2%) and stimulated (1.8%) the respiration of GHE and AVEC, respectively, but the synthetic chlorothalonil caused 16.4% and 2.6% inhibition of the respiration, respectively of the GHE and AVEC soils. As the effects of the natural product were statistically small, this bioindicator indicates that the methanolic fraction of the Polymnia sonchifolia extract, which has fungicide properties, has no environmental effects.

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Cumulative production of 14C-CO2 from 14C-glucose by the soil AVEC treated with the P. sonchifolia methanol extract (PS_T0 = control; PS_T2 = P. sonchifolia; h = hours; d = days) extract.
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f6-sensors-12-03243: Cumulative production of 14C-CO2 from 14C-glucose by the soil AVEC treated with the P. sonchifolia methanol extract (PS_T0 = control; PS_T2 = P. sonchifolia; h = hours; d = days) extract.

Mentions: The cumulative production of 14C-CO2 after the treatment of the AVEC-soil with chlorothalonil (CTL_T1—Figure 5) demonstrated that initially the fungicide stimulated the respiration, but from around 12 days till the end of the study it was 2.6% inhibited. On the other hand, at the end of the study with the P. sonchifolia methanol fraction, the cumulative amount of 14C-CO2 in AVEC was 1.8% bigger in the soil samples with the plant extract (Figure 6) than in the control. The transient effect of different pesticide and other substances applications on soil microbial respiration has been also detected by others [32,33].


Comparative assessment of the effect of synthetic and natural fungicides on soil respiration.

Stefani A, Felício JD, de Andréa MM - Sensors (Basel) (2012)

Cumulative production of 14C-CO2 from 14C-glucose by the soil AVEC treated with the P. sonchifolia methanol extract (PS_T0 = control; PS_T2 = P. sonchifolia; h = hours; d = days) extract.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3376576&req=5

f6-sensors-12-03243: Cumulative production of 14C-CO2 from 14C-glucose by the soil AVEC treated with the P. sonchifolia methanol extract (PS_T0 = control; PS_T2 = P. sonchifolia; h = hours; d = days) extract.
Mentions: The cumulative production of 14C-CO2 after the treatment of the AVEC-soil with chlorothalonil (CTL_T1—Figure 5) demonstrated that initially the fungicide stimulated the respiration, but from around 12 days till the end of the study it was 2.6% inhibited. On the other hand, at the end of the study with the P. sonchifolia methanol fraction, the cumulative amount of 14C-CO2 in AVEC was 1.8% bigger in the soil samples with the plant extract (Figure 6) than in the control. The transient effect of different pesticide and other substances applications on soil microbial respiration has been also detected by others [32,33].

Bottom Line: The effect of the synthetic fungicide chlorothalonil and a natural potential fungicide on the soil microbial activity was evaluated here by the substrate-induced respiration by addition of glucose (SIR), as bioindicator in two soils (Eutrophic Humic Gley-GHE and Typic Eutroferric Chernosol-AVEC).The (14)C-CO(2) produced by the microbial respiration was trapped in NaOH (0.1 M) which was changed each two hours during the first 10 h, and 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 28 days after the treatments.As the effects of the natural product were statistically small, this bioindicator indicates that the methanolic fraction of the Polymnia sonchifolia extract, which has fungicide properties, has no environmental effects.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Instituto Biológico, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
As toxic pesticide residues may persist in agricultural soils and cause environmental pollution, research on natural fungicides to replace the synthetic compounds is currently increasing. The effect of the synthetic fungicide chlorothalonil and a natural potential fungicide on the soil microbial activity was evaluated here by the substrate-induced respiration by addition of glucose (SIR), as bioindicator in two soils (Eutrophic Humic Gley-GHE and Typic Eutroferric Chernosol-AVEC). The induced soil respiration parameter was followed during 28 days after soil treatment either with chlorathalonil (11 μg·g(-1)), or the methanolic fraction from Polymnia sonchifolia extraction (300 μg·g(-1)), and (14)C-glucose (4.0 mg and 5.18 Bq of (14)C-glucose g(-1)). The (14)C-CO(2) produced by the microbial respiration was trapped in NaOH (0.1 M) which was changed each two hours during the first 10 h, and 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 28 days after the treatments. The methanolic fraction of the plant extract inhibited (2.2%) and stimulated (1.8%) the respiration of GHE and AVEC, respectively, but the synthetic chlorothalonil caused 16.4% and 2.6% inhibition of the respiration, respectively of the GHE and AVEC soils. As the effects of the natural product were statistically small, this bioindicator indicates that the methanolic fraction of the Polymnia sonchifolia extract, which has fungicide properties, has no environmental effects.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus