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Comparative assessment of the effect of synthetic and natural fungicides on soil respiration.

Stefani A, Felício JD, de Andréa MM - Sensors (Basel) (2012)

Bottom Line: The effect of the synthetic fungicide chlorothalonil and a natural potential fungicide on the soil microbial activity was evaluated here by the substrate-induced respiration by addition of glucose (SIR), as bioindicator in two soils (Eutrophic Humic Gley-GHE and Typic Eutroferric Chernosol-AVEC).The (14)C-CO(2) produced by the microbial respiration was trapped in NaOH (0.1 M) which was changed each two hours during the first 10 h, and 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 28 days after the treatments.As the effects of the natural product were statistically small, this bioindicator indicates that the methanolic fraction of the Polymnia sonchifolia extract, which has fungicide properties, has no environmental effects.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Instituto Biológico, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
As toxic pesticide residues may persist in agricultural soils and cause environmental pollution, research on natural fungicides to replace the synthetic compounds is currently increasing. The effect of the synthetic fungicide chlorothalonil and a natural potential fungicide on the soil microbial activity was evaluated here by the substrate-induced respiration by addition of glucose (SIR), as bioindicator in two soils (Eutrophic Humic Gley-GHE and Typic Eutroferric Chernosol-AVEC). The induced soil respiration parameter was followed during 28 days after soil treatment either with chlorathalonil (11 μg·g(-1)), or the methanolic fraction from Polymnia sonchifolia extraction (300 μg·g(-1)), and (14)C-glucose (4.0 mg and 5.18 Bq of (14)C-glucose g(-1)). The (14)C-CO(2) produced by the microbial respiration was trapped in NaOH (0.1 M) which was changed each two hours during the first 10 h, and 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 28 days after the treatments. The methanolic fraction of the plant extract inhibited (2.2%) and stimulated (1.8%) the respiration of GHE and AVEC, respectively, but the synthetic chlorothalonil caused 16.4% and 2.6% inhibition of the respiration, respectively of the GHE and AVEC soils. As the effects of the natural product were statistically small, this bioindicator indicates that the methanolic fraction of the Polymnia sonchifolia extract, which has fungicide properties, has no environmental effects.

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Substrate (14C-glucose)-induced respiration of the soil GHE treated either with chlorothalonil (CTL_T1) or the P. sonchifolia methanol extract (PS_T2) and their respective controls (CTL_T0; PS_T0), during 28-day incubation. (h = hours; d = days; mean ± SD; different letters near the bars indicate statistical difference in relation to the control).
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f1-sensors-12-03243: Substrate (14C-glucose)-induced respiration of the soil GHE treated either with chlorothalonil (CTL_T1) or the P. sonchifolia methanol extract (PS_T2) and their respective controls (CTL_T0; PS_T0), during 28-day incubation. (h = hours; d = days; mean ± SD; different letters near the bars indicate statistical difference in relation to the control).

Mentions: Although there are pesticides that do not affect soil respiration [30], the GHE soil treated with chlorothalonil presented a statistically smaller production of 14C-CO2 (p = 0.001) than its untreated control from 8 h to one day after the fungicide treatment (Figure 1). But, afterwards up till 3 days, the presence of chlorothalonil stimulated (p = 0.001) the 14C-CO2 production, indicating the recovering of the microbial activity, the stimulus by the fungicide and, thus, the enhanced biomineralization of the 14C-glucose.


Comparative assessment of the effect of synthetic and natural fungicides on soil respiration.

Stefani A, Felício JD, de Andréa MM - Sensors (Basel) (2012)

Substrate (14C-glucose)-induced respiration of the soil GHE treated either with chlorothalonil (CTL_T1) or the P. sonchifolia methanol extract (PS_T2) and their respective controls (CTL_T0; PS_T0), during 28-day incubation. (h = hours; d = days; mean ± SD; different letters near the bars indicate statistical difference in relation to the control).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3376576&req=5

f1-sensors-12-03243: Substrate (14C-glucose)-induced respiration of the soil GHE treated either with chlorothalonil (CTL_T1) or the P. sonchifolia methanol extract (PS_T2) and their respective controls (CTL_T0; PS_T0), during 28-day incubation. (h = hours; d = days; mean ± SD; different letters near the bars indicate statistical difference in relation to the control).
Mentions: Although there are pesticides that do not affect soil respiration [30], the GHE soil treated with chlorothalonil presented a statistically smaller production of 14C-CO2 (p = 0.001) than its untreated control from 8 h to one day after the fungicide treatment (Figure 1). But, afterwards up till 3 days, the presence of chlorothalonil stimulated (p = 0.001) the 14C-CO2 production, indicating the recovering of the microbial activity, the stimulus by the fungicide and, thus, the enhanced biomineralization of the 14C-glucose.

Bottom Line: The effect of the synthetic fungicide chlorothalonil and a natural potential fungicide on the soil microbial activity was evaluated here by the substrate-induced respiration by addition of glucose (SIR), as bioindicator in two soils (Eutrophic Humic Gley-GHE and Typic Eutroferric Chernosol-AVEC).The (14)C-CO(2) produced by the microbial respiration was trapped in NaOH (0.1 M) which was changed each two hours during the first 10 h, and 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 28 days after the treatments.As the effects of the natural product were statistically small, this bioindicator indicates that the methanolic fraction of the Polymnia sonchifolia extract, which has fungicide properties, has no environmental effects.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Instituto Biológico, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
As toxic pesticide residues may persist in agricultural soils and cause environmental pollution, research on natural fungicides to replace the synthetic compounds is currently increasing. The effect of the synthetic fungicide chlorothalonil and a natural potential fungicide on the soil microbial activity was evaluated here by the substrate-induced respiration by addition of glucose (SIR), as bioindicator in two soils (Eutrophic Humic Gley-GHE and Typic Eutroferric Chernosol-AVEC). The induced soil respiration parameter was followed during 28 days after soil treatment either with chlorathalonil (11 μg·g(-1)), or the methanolic fraction from Polymnia sonchifolia extraction (300 μg·g(-1)), and (14)C-glucose (4.0 mg and 5.18 Bq of (14)C-glucose g(-1)). The (14)C-CO(2) produced by the microbial respiration was trapped in NaOH (0.1 M) which was changed each two hours during the first 10 h, and 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 28 days after the treatments. The methanolic fraction of the plant extract inhibited (2.2%) and stimulated (1.8%) the respiration of GHE and AVEC, respectively, but the synthetic chlorothalonil caused 16.4% and 2.6% inhibition of the respiration, respectively of the GHE and AVEC soils. As the effects of the natural product were statistically small, this bioindicator indicates that the methanolic fraction of the Polymnia sonchifolia extract, which has fungicide properties, has no environmental effects.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus