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Photonic crystal fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer for refractive index sensing.

Wang JN, Tang JL - Sensors (Basel) (2012)

Bottom Line: We report on a refractive index sensor using a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) interferometer which was realized by fusion splicing a short section of PCF (Blaze Photonics, LMA-10) between two standard single mode fibers.The fully collapsed air holes of the PCF at the spice regions allow the coupling of PCF core and cladding modes that makes a Mach-Zehnder interferometer.Experimental results using wavelength-shift interrogation for sensing different concentrations of sucrose solution show that a resolution of 1.62 × 10(-4)-8.88 × 10(-4) RIU or 1.02 × 10(-4)-9.04 × 10(-4) RIU (sensing length for 3.50 or 5.00 cm, respectively) was achieved for refractive indices in the range of 1.333 to 1.422, suggesting that the PCF interferometer are attractive for chemical, biological, biochemical sensing with aqueous solutions, as well as for civil engineering and environmental monitoring applications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Construction Engineering, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Douliou 64002, Taiwan. wangjn@yuntech.edu.tw

ABSTRACT
We report on a refractive index sensor using a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) interferometer which was realized by fusion splicing a short section of PCF (Blaze Photonics, LMA-10) between two standard single mode fibers. The fully collapsed air holes of the PCF at the spice regions allow the coupling of PCF core and cladding modes that makes a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The transmission spectrum exhibits sinusoidal interference pattern which shifts differently when the cladding/core surface of the PCF is immersed with different RI of the surrounding medium. Experimental results using wavelength-shift interrogation for sensing different concentrations of sucrose solution show that a resolution of 1.62 × 10(-4)-8.88 × 10(-4) RIU or 1.02 × 10(-4)-9.04 × 10(-4) RIU (sensing length for 3.50 or 5.00 cm, respectively) was achieved for refractive indices in the range of 1.333 to 1.422, suggesting that the PCF interferometer are attractive for chemical, biological, biochemical sensing with aqueous solutions, as well as for civil engineering and environmental monitoring applications.

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A 1.34-cm PCF interferometer with: (a) the transmission spectra for sensing different refractive indices of the sucrose solution (RI = 1.333 – 1.422); (b) the relationship between wavelength shift and refractive index (resonance wavelength = 1,540.60 nm).
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f8-sensors-12-02983: A 1.34-cm PCF interferometer with: (a) the transmission spectra for sensing different refractive indices of the sucrose solution (RI = 1.333 – 1.422); (b) the relationship between wavelength shift and refractive index (resonance wavelength = 1,540.60 nm).

Mentions: The ability of the PCF interferometer to detect changes in the surrounding RI was studied. The control of surrounding RI was through the use of sucrose solutions with various concentrations. Figure 8(a) shows the plot of transmission spectra of a 1.34-cm PCF interferometer with resonance wavelength = 1,540.60 nm, for sensing different refractive indices of the sucrose solution (RI =1.333 − 1.422). Since the relationship between wavelength shift and refractive index is nonlinear; thus, we quantified the above relationship using three-stage refractive index area, where the three-stage refractive index area are as follows: first refractive index area (RI = 1.333 − 1.373); second refractive index area (RI = 1.373 − 1.403); and third refractive index area (RI = 1.403 − 1.422).


Photonic crystal fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer for refractive index sensing.

Wang JN, Tang JL - Sensors (Basel) (2012)

A 1.34-cm PCF interferometer with: (a) the transmission spectra for sensing different refractive indices of the sucrose solution (RI = 1.333 – 1.422); (b) the relationship between wavelength shift and refractive index (resonance wavelength = 1,540.60 nm).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3376571&req=5

f8-sensors-12-02983: A 1.34-cm PCF interferometer with: (a) the transmission spectra for sensing different refractive indices of the sucrose solution (RI = 1.333 – 1.422); (b) the relationship between wavelength shift and refractive index (resonance wavelength = 1,540.60 nm).
Mentions: The ability of the PCF interferometer to detect changes in the surrounding RI was studied. The control of surrounding RI was through the use of sucrose solutions with various concentrations. Figure 8(a) shows the plot of transmission spectra of a 1.34-cm PCF interferometer with resonance wavelength = 1,540.60 nm, for sensing different refractive indices of the sucrose solution (RI =1.333 − 1.422). Since the relationship between wavelength shift and refractive index is nonlinear; thus, we quantified the above relationship using three-stage refractive index area, where the three-stage refractive index area are as follows: first refractive index area (RI = 1.333 − 1.373); second refractive index area (RI = 1.373 − 1.403); and third refractive index area (RI = 1.403 − 1.422).

Bottom Line: We report on a refractive index sensor using a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) interferometer which was realized by fusion splicing a short section of PCF (Blaze Photonics, LMA-10) between two standard single mode fibers.The fully collapsed air holes of the PCF at the spice regions allow the coupling of PCF core and cladding modes that makes a Mach-Zehnder interferometer.Experimental results using wavelength-shift interrogation for sensing different concentrations of sucrose solution show that a resolution of 1.62 × 10(-4)-8.88 × 10(-4) RIU or 1.02 × 10(-4)-9.04 × 10(-4) RIU (sensing length for 3.50 or 5.00 cm, respectively) was achieved for refractive indices in the range of 1.333 to 1.422, suggesting that the PCF interferometer are attractive for chemical, biological, biochemical sensing with aqueous solutions, as well as for civil engineering and environmental monitoring applications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Construction Engineering, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Douliou 64002, Taiwan. wangjn@yuntech.edu.tw

ABSTRACT
We report on a refractive index sensor using a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) interferometer which was realized by fusion splicing a short section of PCF (Blaze Photonics, LMA-10) between two standard single mode fibers. The fully collapsed air holes of the PCF at the spice regions allow the coupling of PCF core and cladding modes that makes a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The transmission spectrum exhibits sinusoidal interference pattern which shifts differently when the cladding/core surface of the PCF is immersed with different RI of the surrounding medium. Experimental results using wavelength-shift interrogation for sensing different concentrations of sucrose solution show that a resolution of 1.62 × 10(-4)-8.88 × 10(-4) RIU or 1.02 × 10(-4)-9.04 × 10(-4) RIU (sensing length for 3.50 or 5.00 cm, respectively) was achieved for refractive indices in the range of 1.333 to 1.422, suggesting that the PCF interferometer are attractive for chemical, biological, biochemical sensing with aqueous solutions, as well as for civil engineering and environmental monitoring applications.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus