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Photonic crystal fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer for refractive index sensing.

Wang JN, Tang JL - Sensors (Basel) (2012)

Bottom Line: We report on a refractive index sensor using a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) interferometer which was realized by fusion splicing a short section of PCF (Blaze Photonics, LMA-10) between two standard single mode fibers.The fully collapsed air holes of the PCF at the spice regions allow the coupling of PCF core and cladding modes that makes a Mach-Zehnder interferometer.Experimental results using wavelength-shift interrogation for sensing different concentrations of sucrose solution show that a resolution of 1.62 × 10(-4)-8.88 × 10(-4) RIU or 1.02 × 10(-4)-9.04 × 10(-4) RIU (sensing length for 3.50 or 5.00 cm, respectively) was achieved for refractive indices in the range of 1.333 to 1.422, suggesting that the PCF interferometer are attractive for chemical, biological, biochemical sensing with aqueous solutions, as well as for civil engineering and environmental monitoring applications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Construction Engineering, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Douliou 64002, Taiwan. wangjn@yuntech.edu.tw

ABSTRACT
We report on a refractive index sensor using a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) interferometer which was realized by fusion splicing a short section of PCF (Blaze Photonics, LMA-10) between two standard single mode fibers. The fully collapsed air holes of the PCF at the spice regions allow the coupling of PCF core and cladding modes that makes a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The transmission spectrum exhibits sinusoidal interference pattern which shifts differently when the cladding/core surface of the PCF is immersed with different RI of the surrounding medium. Experimental results using wavelength-shift interrogation for sensing different concentrations of sucrose solution show that a resolution of 1.62 × 10(-4)-8.88 × 10(-4) RIU or 1.02 × 10(-4)-9.04 × 10(-4) RIU (sensing length for 3.50 or 5.00 cm, respectively) was achieved for refractive indices in the range of 1.333 to 1.422, suggesting that the PCF interferometer are attractive for chemical, biological, biochemical sensing with aqueous solutions, as well as for civil engineering and environmental monitoring applications.

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(a) The transmission spectra of a 2.67-cm PCF interferometers when heated from 22 °C to 150 °C; (b) The relationship between wavelength and temperature for this 2.67-cm PCF interferometers (temperature sensitivity = 5.55 pm/°C).
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f4-sensors-12-02983: (a) The transmission spectra of a 2.67-cm PCF interferometers when heated from 22 °C to 150 °C; (b) The relationship between wavelength and temperature for this 2.67-cm PCF interferometers (temperature sensitivity = 5.55 pm/°C).

Mentions: The RI measurements were performed using the above 15 interferometers and the refractive indices were in the range of 1.333 to 1.422. The interference spectra and the relationship between wavelength shift and refractive index were used to characterize the PCF Mach-Zehnder interferometers. During the course of data measurement, the magnetic clamps and a lift platform were used to keep the PCF interferometers straight lines without the bending effect [see Figure 3(a)]. We have maintained the condition of strain, bending, and temperature quite stable in the laboratory so that they were not the concerns of this work. For precise measurement, we kept the experimental setup and sample materials at a constant ambient temperature (within 1 °C fluctuation). As mentioned in the introduction [11], we also conducted temperature sensing experiment to prove that the PCF interferometers have the potential to compensate high sensitivity to environmental temperature. For example, a 2.67-cm PCF interferometer was heated from 22 °C to 150 °C using a forced air draft oven [see Figure 3(b)]. The transmission spectra of this PCF interferometer are shown in Figure 4(a). The relationship between wavelength shift and temperature was shown in Figure 4(b). The corresponding sensing slope is the temperature sensitivity of a PCF interferometer [temperature sensitivity = 5.55 pm/°C, see Figure 4(b)]. We have obtained the temperature sensitivity of all five different lengths of PCF interferometers was in the range of 5.55–8.29 pm/°C. As the environmental temperature change is about 50 °C, the corresponding wavelength shifts of PCF interferometers are less than 0.4 nm. Thus, the PCF interferometers have the potential to compensate high sensitivity to general environmental temperature.


Photonic crystal fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer for refractive index sensing.

Wang JN, Tang JL - Sensors (Basel) (2012)

(a) The transmission spectra of a 2.67-cm PCF interferometers when heated from 22 °C to 150 °C; (b) The relationship between wavelength and temperature for this 2.67-cm PCF interferometers (temperature sensitivity = 5.55 pm/°C).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3376571&req=5

f4-sensors-12-02983: (a) The transmission spectra of a 2.67-cm PCF interferometers when heated from 22 °C to 150 °C; (b) The relationship between wavelength and temperature for this 2.67-cm PCF interferometers (temperature sensitivity = 5.55 pm/°C).
Mentions: The RI measurements were performed using the above 15 interferometers and the refractive indices were in the range of 1.333 to 1.422. The interference spectra and the relationship between wavelength shift and refractive index were used to characterize the PCF Mach-Zehnder interferometers. During the course of data measurement, the magnetic clamps and a lift platform were used to keep the PCF interferometers straight lines without the bending effect [see Figure 3(a)]. We have maintained the condition of strain, bending, and temperature quite stable in the laboratory so that they were not the concerns of this work. For precise measurement, we kept the experimental setup and sample materials at a constant ambient temperature (within 1 °C fluctuation). As mentioned in the introduction [11], we also conducted temperature sensing experiment to prove that the PCF interferometers have the potential to compensate high sensitivity to environmental temperature. For example, a 2.67-cm PCF interferometer was heated from 22 °C to 150 °C using a forced air draft oven [see Figure 3(b)]. The transmission spectra of this PCF interferometer are shown in Figure 4(a). The relationship between wavelength shift and temperature was shown in Figure 4(b). The corresponding sensing slope is the temperature sensitivity of a PCF interferometer [temperature sensitivity = 5.55 pm/°C, see Figure 4(b)]. We have obtained the temperature sensitivity of all five different lengths of PCF interferometers was in the range of 5.55–8.29 pm/°C. As the environmental temperature change is about 50 °C, the corresponding wavelength shifts of PCF interferometers are less than 0.4 nm. Thus, the PCF interferometers have the potential to compensate high sensitivity to general environmental temperature.

Bottom Line: We report on a refractive index sensor using a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) interferometer which was realized by fusion splicing a short section of PCF (Blaze Photonics, LMA-10) between two standard single mode fibers.The fully collapsed air holes of the PCF at the spice regions allow the coupling of PCF core and cladding modes that makes a Mach-Zehnder interferometer.Experimental results using wavelength-shift interrogation for sensing different concentrations of sucrose solution show that a resolution of 1.62 × 10(-4)-8.88 × 10(-4) RIU or 1.02 × 10(-4)-9.04 × 10(-4) RIU (sensing length for 3.50 or 5.00 cm, respectively) was achieved for refractive indices in the range of 1.333 to 1.422, suggesting that the PCF interferometer are attractive for chemical, biological, biochemical sensing with aqueous solutions, as well as for civil engineering and environmental monitoring applications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Construction Engineering, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Douliou 64002, Taiwan. wangjn@yuntech.edu.tw

ABSTRACT
We report on a refractive index sensor using a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) interferometer which was realized by fusion splicing a short section of PCF (Blaze Photonics, LMA-10) between two standard single mode fibers. The fully collapsed air holes of the PCF at the spice regions allow the coupling of PCF core and cladding modes that makes a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The transmission spectrum exhibits sinusoidal interference pattern which shifts differently when the cladding/core surface of the PCF is immersed with different RI of the surrounding medium. Experimental results using wavelength-shift interrogation for sensing different concentrations of sucrose solution show that a resolution of 1.62 × 10(-4)-8.88 × 10(-4) RIU or 1.02 × 10(-4)-9.04 × 10(-4) RIU (sensing length for 3.50 or 5.00 cm, respectively) was achieved for refractive indices in the range of 1.333 to 1.422, suggesting that the PCF interferometer are attractive for chemical, biological, biochemical sensing with aqueous solutions, as well as for civil engineering and environmental monitoring applications.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus