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Inertial sensing to determine movement disorder motion present before and after treatment.

Teskey WJ, Elhabiby M, El-Sheimy N - Sensors (Basel) (2012)

Bottom Line: It was quite surprising that this coherence analysis depicts that there is a statistically significant relationship using coherence analysis when differentiating between control and effectively medicated PD motion.Dyskinesia is involuntary motion or the absence of intended motion, and it is a common side effect among medicated PD patients.As well, the finding that PD motion, when well medicated, does still differ significantly from control motion allows for researchers to quantify potential deficiencies in the use of medication.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Geomatics Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. wjeteske@ucalgary.ca

ABSTRACT
There has been a lot of interest in recent years in using inertial sensors (accelerometers and gyroscopes) to monitor movement disorder motion and monitor the efficacy of treatment options. Two of the most prominent movement disorders, which are under evaluation in this research paper, are essential tremor (ET) and Parkinson's disease (PD). These movement disorders are first evaluated to show that ET and PD motion often depict more (tremor) motion content in the 3-12 Hz frequency band of interest than control data and that such tremor motion can be characterized using inertial sensors. As well, coherence analysis is used to compare between pairs of many of the six degrees-of-freedom of motions under evaluation, to determine the similarity in tremor motion for the various degrees-of-freedom at different frequency bands of interest. It was quite surprising that this coherence analysis depicts that there is a statistically significant relationship using coherence analysis when differentiating between control and effectively medicated PD motion. The statistical analysis uncovers the novel finding that PD medication induced dyskinesia is depicted within coherence data from inertial signals. Dyskinesia is involuntary motion or the absence of intended motion, and it is a common side effect among medicated PD patients. The results show that inertial sensors can be used to differentiate between effectively medicated PD motion and control motion; such a differentiation can often be difficult to perform with the human eye because effectively medicated PD patients tend to not produce much tremor. As well, the finding that PD motion, when well medicated, does still differ significantly from control motion allows for researchers to quantify potential deficiencies in the use of medication. By using inertial sensors to spot such deficiencies, as outlined in this research paper, it is hoped that medications with even a larger degree of efficacy can be created in the future.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

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f3-sensors-12-03512: Experimental setup.

Mentions: Data was captured, as shown in Figure 3, using an IMU containing three accelerometers and three gyroscopes (sensors used were the LIS3LO6AL from ST Microelectronics [22] and the XV-8100CV from Epson Toyocom [23], respectively). Subjects were asked to pick up an IMU out of a holster at the beginning of testing and direct a laser beam from a laser mounted on the IMU at targets of interest on a computer screen; upon arrival at each target, subjects would click a button on the IMU with their thumb before moving onto the next target. Ten such targets of interest were randomly positioned on the computer screen for each trial and ten such trials were carried out with each subject. At the conclusion of testing (for each trial) subjects were asked to place the IMU back in the holster from which they grabbed the IMU at the beginning of the trial. During the course of data collection, subjects were seated. As well, the IMU axes (for both the accelerometer and gyroscope) were defined such that the positive x-axis was pointing to the subject’s right, the positive y-axis was pointing towards the subject when they were holding the IMU in front of them and the positive z-axis was pointing downwards. These orientations were, of course, shifting somewhat during the course of a trial because the IMU orientation was changing as subjects moved the IMU (although, generally, the orientation of the IMU did not change significantly during the course of a trial). The size of the IMU was about the size of the palm of the average test subject, and data was logged on board the IMU without the use of exterior cables.


Inertial sensing to determine movement disorder motion present before and after treatment.

Teskey WJ, Elhabiby M, El-Sheimy N - Sensors (Basel) (2012)

Experimental setup.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3376555&req=5

f3-sensors-12-03512: Experimental setup.
Mentions: Data was captured, as shown in Figure 3, using an IMU containing three accelerometers and three gyroscopes (sensors used were the LIS3LO6AL from ST Microelectronics [22] and the XV-8100CV from Epson Toyocom [23], respectively). Subjects were asked to pick up an IMU out of a holster at the beginning of testing and direct a laser beam from a laser mounted on the IMU at targets of interest on a computer screen; upon arrival at each target, subjects would click a button on the IMU with their thumb before moving onto the next target. Ten such targets of interest were randomly positioned on the computer screen for each trial and ten such trials were carried out with each subject. At the conclusion of testing (for each trial) subjects were asked to place the IMU back in the holster from which they grabbed the IMU at the beginning of the trial. During the course of data collection, subjects were seated. As well, the IMU axes (for both the accelerometer and gyroscope) were defined such that the positive x-axis was pointing to the subject’s right, the positive y-axis was pointing towards the subject when they were holding the IMU in front of them and the positive z-axis was pointing downwards. These orientations were, of course, shifting somewhat during the course of a trial because the IMU orientation was changing as subjects moved the IMU (although, generally, the orientation of the IMU did not change significantly during the course of a trial). The size of the IMU was about the size of the palm of the average test subject, and data was logged on board the IMU without the use of exterior cables.

Bottom Line: It was quite surprising that this coherence analysis depicts that there is a statistically significant relationship using coherence analysis when differentiating between control and effectively medicated PD motion.Dyskinesia is involuntary motion or the absence of intended motion, and it is a common side effect among medicated PD patients.As well, the finding that PD motion, when well medicated, does still differ significantly from control motion allows for researchers to quantify potential deficiencies in the use of medication.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Geomatics Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. wjeteske@ucalgary.ca

ABSTRACT
There has been a lot of interest in recent years in using inertial sensors (accelerometers and gyroscopes) to monitor movement disorder motion and monitor the efficacy of treatment options. Two of the most prominent movement disorders, which are under evaluation in this research paper, are essential tremor (ET) and Parkinson's disease (PD). These movement disorders are first evaluated to show that ET and PD motion often depict more (tremor) motion content in the 3-12 Hz frequency band of interest than control data and that such tremor motion can be characterized using inertial sensors. As well, coherence analysis is used to compare between pairs of many of the six degrees-of-freedom of motions under evaluation, to determine the similarity in tremor motion for the various degrees-of-freedom at different frequency bands of interest. It was quite surprising that this coherence analysis depicts that there is a statistically significant relationship using coherence analysis when differentiating between control and effectively medicated PD motion. The statistical analysis uncovers the novel finding that PD medication induced dyskinesia is depicted within coherence data from inertial signals. Dyskinesia is involuntary motion or the absence of intended motion, and it is a common side effect among medicated PD patients. The results show that inertial sensors can be used to differentiate between effectively medicated PD motion and control motion; such a differentiation can often be difficult to perform with the human eye because effectively medicated PD patients tend to not produce much tremor. As well, the finding that PD motion, when well medicated, does still differ significantly from control motion allows for researchers to quantify potential deficiencies in the use of medication. By using inertial sensors to spot such deficiencies, as outlined in this research paper, it is hoped that medications with even a larger degree of efficacy can be created in the future.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus