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Offspring of Prenatal IV Nicotine Exposure Exhibit Increased Sensitivity to the Reinforcing Effects of Methamphetamine.

Harrod SB, Lacy RT, Morgan AJ - Front Pharmacol (2012)

Bottom Line: Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with increased substance abuse in offspring.There were no sex differences in either experiment.These results indicate that IV PN-exposed adult offspring exhibited increased sensitivity to IV METH.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Behavioral Neuroscience Program, Department of Psychology, University of South Carolina Columbia, SC, USA.

ABSTRACT
Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with increased substance abuse in offspring. Preclinical research shows that in utero exposure to nicotine, the primary psychoactive compound in tobacco smoke, influences the neurodevelopment of reward systems and alters motivated behavior in offspring. The present study determined if prenatal nicotine (PN) exposure altered the sensitivity to the reinforcing and aversive effects of methamphetamine (METH) in offspring using a low dose, intravenous (IV) exposure method. Pregnant dams were administered nicotine (0.05 mg/kg/injection) or prenatal saline (PS) 3×/day on gestational days 8-21, and adult offspring were tested using METH self-administration (experiment 1) or METH-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA; experiment 2) procedures. For METH self-administration, animals were trained to respond for IV METH (0.05 mg/kg/infusion; fixed-ratio 3) and they were tested on varying doses of the reinforcer (0.0005-1.0 mg/kg/infusion). For METH CTA, rats received three saccharin and METH pairings (0, 0.3, or 0.5 mg/kg, sc) followed by 14 daily extinction trials. Experiment 1: PN and PS animals exhibited inverted U-shaped dose-response curves; however, the PN animal's curve was shifted to the left, suggesting PN animals were more sensitive to the reinforcing effects of METH. Experiment 2: METH CTA was acquired in a dose-dependent manner and the factor of PN exposure was not related to the acquisition or extinction of METH-induced CTA. There were no sex differences in either experiment. These results indicate that IV PN-exposed adult offspring exhibited increased sensitivity to IV METH. This suggests that PN exposure, via maternal smoking, will alter the reinforcing effects of METH during later stages of development, and furthermore, will influence substance use vulnerability in adult human offspring.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(A) Mean (±SEM) weight gain data for the Saline and Nicotine dams across gestation. (B) Mean (±SEM) weight gain data for the PN and PS pups across PND 1–21.
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Figure 1: (A) Mean (±SEM) weight gain data for the Saline and Nicotine dams across gestation. (B) Mean (±SEM) weight gain data for the PN and PS pups across PND 1–21.

Mentions: Data gathered from the PN and PS-exposed pups revealed no significant effect of prenatal treatment on the number of pups born, the ratio of male vs. female pups, righting reflex, negative geotaxis, or eye opening (data not shown). Further, there was no significant effect of Prenatal Treatment on dam weight gain (Figure 1A) or pup weight gain (Figure 1B). These findings indicate that PN exposure did not disrupt postnatal development according to the ontogenetic measures used in the present study.


Offspring of Prenatal IV Nicotine Exposure Exhibit Increased Sensitivity to the Reinforcing Effects of Methamphetamine.

Harrod SB, Lacy RT, Morgan AJ - Front Pharmacol (2012)

(A) Mean (±SEM) weight gain data for the Saline and Nicotine dams across gestation. (B) Mean (±SEM) weight gain data for the PN and PS pups across PND 1–21.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3376423&req=5

Figure 1: (A) Mean (±SEM) weight gain data for the Saline and Nicotine dams across gestation. (B) Mean (±SEM) weight gain data for the PN and PS pups across PND 1–21.
Mentions: Data gathered from the PN and PS-exposed pups revealed no significant effect of prenatal treatment on the number of pups born, the ratio of male vs. female pups, righting reflex, negative geotaxis, or eye opening (data not shown). Further, there was no significant effect of Prenatal Treatment on dam weight gain (Figure 1A) or pup weight gain (Figure 1B). These findings indicate that PN exposure did not disrupt postnatal development according to the ontogenetic measures used in the present study.

Bottom Line: Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with increased substance abuse in offspring.There were no sex differences in either experiment.These results indicate that IV PN-exposed adult offspring exhibited increased sensitivity to IV METH.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Behavioral Neuroscience Program, Department of Psychology, University of South Carolina Columbia, SC, USA.

ABSTRACT
Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with increased substance abuse in offspring. Preclinical research shows that in utero exposure to nicotine, the primary psychoactive compound in tobacco smoke, influences the neurodevelopment of reward systems and alters motivated behavior in offspring. The present study determined if prenatal nicotine (PN) exposure altered the sensitivity to the reinforcing and aversive effects of methamphetamine (METH) in offspring using a low dose, intravenous (IV) exposure method. Pregnant dams were administered nicotine (0.05 mg/kg/injection) or prenatal saline (PS) 3×/day on gestational days 8-21, and adult offspring were tested using METH self-administration (experiment 1) or METH-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA; experiment 2) procedures. For METH self-administration, animals were trained to respond for IV METH (0.05 mg/kg/infusion; fixed-ratio 3) and they were tested on varying doses of the reinforcer (0.0005-1.0 mg/kg/infusion). For METH CTA, rats received three saccharin and METH pairings (0, 0.3, or 0.5 mg/kg, sc) followed by 14 daily extinction trials. Experiment 1: PN and PS animals exhibited inverted U-shaped dose-response curves; however, the PN animal's curve was shifted to the left, suggesting PN animals were more sensitive to the reinforcing effects of METH. Experiment 2: METH CTA was acquired in a dose-dependent manner and the factor of PN exposure was not related to the acquisition or extinction of METH-induced CTA. There were no sex differences in either experiment. These results indicate that IV PN-exposed adult offspring exhibited increased sensitivity to IV METH. This suggests that PN exposure, via maternal smoking, will alter the reinforcing effects of METH during later stages of development, and furthermore, will influence substance use vulnerability in adult human offspring.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus