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Human gut microbiome viewed across age and geography.

Yatsunenko T, Rey FE, Manary MJ, Trehan I, Dominguez-Bello MG, Contreras M, Magris M, Hidalgo G, Baldassano RN, Anokhin AP, Heath AC, Warner B, Reeder J, Kuczynski J, Caporaso JG, Lozupone CA, Lauber C, Clemente JC, Knights D, Knight R, Gordon JI - Nature (2012)

Bottom Line: Shared features of the functional maturation of the gut microbiome were identified during the first three years of life in all three populations, including age-associated changes in the genes involved in vitamin biosynthesis and metabolism.These distinctive features are evident in early infancy as well as adulthood.Our findings underscore the need to consider the microbiome when evaluating human development, nutritional needs, physiological variations and the impact of westernization.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Genome Sciences and Systems Biology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA.

ABSTRACT
Gut microbial communities represent one source of human genetic and metabolic diversity. To examine how gut microbiomes differ among human populations, here we characterize bacterial species in fecal samples from 531 individuals, plus the gene content of 110 of them. The cohort encompassed healthy children and adults from the Amazonas of Venezuela, rural Malawi and US metropolitan areas and included mono- and dizygotic twins. Shared features of the functional maturation of the gut microbiome were identified during the first three years of life in all three populations, including age-associated changes in the genes involved in vitamin biosynthesis and metabolism. Pronounced differences in bacterial assemblages and functional gene repertoires were noted between US residents and those in the other two countries. These distinctive features are evident in early infancy as well as adulthood. Our findings underscore the need to consider the microbiome when evaluating human development, nutritional needs, physiological variations and the impact of westernization.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Differences in the fecal microbiota between family members across the three populations studiedUniFrac distances between the fecal bacterial communities of family members were calculated (n=19 Amerindian, 34 Malawian and 54 USA families with teenage twins). Mean ± SEM values are plotted. The UniFrac matrix was permutated 1000 times; p values represent the fraction of times permuted differences were greater than real differences: ns (not significant; p>0.05), * p<0.05, **p<0.005.
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Figure 4: Differences in the fecal microbiota between family members across the three populations studiedUniFrac distances between the fecal bacterial communities of family members were calculated (n=19 Amerindian, 34 Malawian and 54 USA families with teenage twins). Mean ± SEM values are plotted. The UniFrac matrix was permutated 1000 times; p values represent the fraction of times permuted differences were greater than real differences: ns (not significant; p>0.05), * p<0.05, **p<0.005.

Mentions: Differences in social structures may influence the extent of vertical transmission of the microbiota and the flow of microbes and microbial genes among members of a household. Differences in cultural tradition also affect food, exposure to pets and livestock, and many other factors that could influence how and from where a gut microbiota/microbiome is acquired. We previously observed that adult MZ twins are no more similar to one another in terms of their gut bacterial community structure than adult DZ twins32. This result suggests that the overall heritability of the microbiome is low. We confirmed that the phylogenetic architecture of the fecal microbiota of MZ Malawian co-twins ≤3 years of age is not more similar than the microbiota of similarly aged DZ co-twins (n=15 MZ and 6 DZ twin pairs). We found that this is also true for MZ and DZ twin pairs aged 1–12 months of age (n=16 twin pairs), as well as teenaged twins (13–17 years-old; n=50 pairs) living together in the USA (Fig. 4).


Human gut microbiome viewed across age and geography.

Yatsunenko T, Rey FE, Manary MJ, Trehan I, Dominguez-Bello MG, Contreras M, Magris M, Hidalgo G, Baldassano RN, Anokhin AP, Heath AC, Warner B, Reeder J, Kuczynski J, Caporaso JG, Lozupone CA, Lauber C, Clemente JC, Knights D, Knight R, Gordon JI - Nature (2012)

Differences in the fecal microbiota between family members across the three populations studiedUniFrac distances between the fecal bacterial communities of family members were calculated (n=19 Amerindian, 34 Malawian and 54 USA families with teenage twins). Mean ± SEM values are plotted. The UniFrac matrix was permutated 1000 times; p values represent the fraction of times permuted differences were greater than real differences: ns (not significant; p>0.05), * p<0.05, **p<0.005.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3376388&req=5

Figure 4: Differences in the fecal microbiota between family members across the three populations studiedUniFrac distances between the fecal bacterial communities of family members were calculated (n=19 Amerindian, 34 Malawian and 54 USA families with teenage twins). Mean ± SEM values are plotted. The UniFrac matrix was permutated 1000 times; p values represent the fraction of times permuted differences were greater than real differences: ns (not significant; p>0.05), * p<0.05, **p<0.005.
Mentions: Differences in social structures may influence the extent of vertical transmission of the microbiota and the flow of microbes and microbial genes among members of a household. Differences in cultural tradition also affect food, exposure to pets and livestock, and many other factors that could influence how and from where a gut microbiota/microbiome is acquired. We previously observed that adult MZ twins are no more similar to one another in terms of their gut bacterial community structure than adult DZ twins32. This result suggests that the overall heritability of the microbiome is low. We confirmed that the phylogenetic architecture of the fecal microbiota of MZ Malawian co-twins ≤3 years of age is not more similar than the microbiota of similarly aged DZ co-twins (n=15 MZ and 6 DZ twin pairs). We found that this is also true for MZ and DZ twin pairs aged 1–12 months of age (n=16 twin pairs), as well as teenaged twins (13–17 years-old; n=50 pairs) living together in the USA (Fig. 4).

Bottom Line: Shared features of the functional maturation of the gut microbiome were identified during the first three years of life in all three populations, including age-associated changes in the genes involved in vitamin biosynthesis and metabolism.These distinctive features are evident in early infancy as well as adulthood.Our findings underscore the need to consider the microbiome when evaluating human development, nutritional needs, physiological variations and the impact of westernization.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Genome Sciences and Systems Biology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA.

ABSTRACT
Gut microbial communities represent one source of human genetic and metabolic diversity. To examine how gut microbiomes differ among human populations, here we characterize bacterial species in fecal samples from 531 individuals, plus the gene content of 110 of them. The cohort encompassed healthy children and adults from the Amazonas of Venezuela, rural Malawi and US metropolitan areas and included mono- and dizygotic twins. Shared features of the functional maturation of the gut microbiome were identified during the first three years of life in all three populations, including age-associated changes in the genes involved in vitamin biosynthesis and metabolism. Pronounced differences in bacterial assemblages and functional gene repertoires were noted between US residents and those in the other two countries. These distinctive features are evident in early infancy as well as adulthood. Our findings underscore the need to consider the microbiome when evaluating human development, nutritional needs, physiological variations and the impact of westernization.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus