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Relative role of flower color and scent on pollinator attraction: experimental tests using F1 and F2 hybrids of daylily and nightlily.

Hirota SK, Nitta K, Kim Y, Kato A, Kawakubo N, Yasumoto AA, Yahara T - PLoS ONE (2012)

Bottom Line: Swallowtail butterflies preferentially visited reddish or orange-colored flowers and hawkmoths preferentially visited yellowish flowers.Neither swallowtail butterflies nor nocturnal hawkmoths showed significant preferences for overall scent emission.Our results suggest that mutations in flower color would be more relevant to the adaptive shift from a diurnally flowering ancestor to H. citrina than that in floral scent.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

ABSTRACT
The daylily (Hemerocallis fulva) and nightlily (H. citrina) are typical examples of a butterfly-pollination system and a hawkmoth-pollination system, respectively. H. fulva has diurnal, reddish or orange-colored flowers and is mainly pollinated by diurnal swallowtail butterflies. H. citrina has nocturnal, yellowish flowers with a sweet fragrance and is pollinated by nocturnal hawkmoths. We evaluated the relative roles of flower color and scent on the evolutionary shift from a diurnally flowering ancestor to H. citrina. We conducted a series of experiments that mimic situations in which mutants differing in either flower color, floral scent or both appeared in a diurnally flowering population. An experimental array of 6 × 6 potted plants, mixed with 24 plants of H. fulva and 12 plants of either F1 or F2 hybrids, were placed in the field, and visitations of swallowtail butterflies and nocturnal hawkmoths were recorded with camcorders. Swallowtail butterflies preferentially visited reddish or orange-colored flowers and hawkmoths preferentially visited yellowish flowers. Neither swallowtail butterflies nor nocturnal hawkmoths showed significant preferences for overall scent emission. Our results suggest that mutations in flower color would be more relevant to the adaptive shift from a diurnally flowering ancestor to H. citrina than that in floral scent.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Partial regression coefficients of frequency of pollinator visits on floral types, H.fulva or F1 hybrid. Daily results (gray bars) and total results (black bars) are shown along the horizontal axis in the order of date. The positive regression coefficient means that the pollinators prefer H. fulva. Conversely the negative regression coefficient means that the pollinators prefer F1 hybrids (***, P<0.001; **, P<0.01; *, P<0.05; after Bonferroni correction, (A) swallowtail butterflies, n=324, (B) hawkmoths, n=360).
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pone-0039010-g008: Partial regression coefficients of frequency of pollinator visits on floral types, H.fulva or F1 hybrid. Daily results (gray bars) and total results (black bars) are shown along the horizontal axis in the order of date. The positive regression coefficient means that the pollinators prefer H. fulva. Conversely the negative regression coefficient means that the pollinators prefer F1 hybrids (***, P<0.001; **, P<0.01; *, P<0.05; after Bonferroni correction, (A) swallowtail butterflies, n=324, (B) hawkmoths, n=360).

Mentions: GLMM analysis of visitation data over the observation period showed that swallowtail butterflies significantly preferred flowers of H. fulva to flowers of F1 hybrids (β±SE=1.09±0.18, df=356, z=5.93, P<0.001; Fig. 8A), while hawkmoths had an overall significant tendency to prefer flowers of F1 hybrids to flowers of H. fulva (β±SE=–0.91±0.08, df=428, z=–10.81, P<0.001; Fig. 8B). When visitation data were tested on each day, trends were significant only on 3 days: 21 July for swallowtail butterflies and 28 and 29 July for hawkmoths due to the smaller sample size (gray bars of Fig. 8).


Relative role of flower color and scent on pollinator attraction: experimental tests using F1 and F2 hybrids of daylily and nightlily.

Hirota SK, Nitta K, Kim Y, Kato A, Kawakubo N, Yasumoto AA, Yahara T - PLoS ONE (2012)

Partial regression coefficients of frequency of pollinator visits on floral types, H.fulva or F1 hybrid. Daily results (gray bars) and total results (black bars) are shown along the horizontal axis in the order of date. The positive regression coefficient means that the pollinators prefer H. fulva. Conversely the negative regression coefficient means that the pollinators prefer F1 hybrids (***, P<0.001; **, P<0.01; *, P<0.05; after Bonferroni correction, (A) swallowtail butterflies, n=324, (B) hawkmoths, n=360).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3376114&req=5

pone-0039010-g008: Partial regression coefficients of frequency of pollinator visits on floral types, H.fulva or F1 hybrid. Daily results (gray bars) and total results (black bars) are shown along the horizontal axis in the order of date. The positive regression coefficient means that the pollinators prefer H. fulva. Conversely the negative regression coefficient means that the pollinators prefer F1 hybrids (***, P<0.001; **, P<0.01; *, P<0.05; after Bonferroni correction, (A) swallowtail butterflies, n=324, (B) hawkmoths, n=360).
Mentions: GLMM analysis of visitation data over the observation period showed that swallowtail butterflies significantly preferred flowers of H. fulva to flowers of F1 hybrids (β±SE=1.09±0.18, df=356, z=5.93, P<0.001; Fig. 8A), while hawkmoths had an overall significant tendency to prefer flowers of F1 hybrids to flowers of H. fulva (β±SE=–0.91±0.08, df=428, z=–10.81, P<0.001; Fig. 8B). When visitation data were tested on each day, trends were significant only on 3 days: 21 July for swallowtail butterflies and 28 and 29 July for hawkmoths due to the smaller sample size (gray bars of Fig. 8).

Bottom Line: Swallowtail butterflies preferentially visited reddish or orange-colored flowers and hawkmoths preferentially visited yellowish flowers.Neither swallowtail butterflies nor nocturnal hawkmoths showed significant preferences for overall scent emission.Our results suggest that mutations in flower color would be more relevant to the adaptive shift from a diurnally flowering ancestor to H. citrina than that in floral scent.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

ABSTRACT
The daylily (Hemerocallis fulva) and nightlily (H. citrina) are typical examples of a butterfly-pollination system and a hawkmoth-pollination system, respectively. H. fulva has diurnal, reddish or orange-colored flowers and is mainly pollinated by diurnal swallowtail butterflies. H. citrina has nocturnal, yellowish flowers with a sweet fragrance and is pollinated by nocturnal hawkmoths. We evaluated the relative roles of flower color and scent on the evolutionary shift from a diurnally flowering ancestor to H. citrina. We conducted a series of experiments that mimic situations in which mutants differing in either flower color, floral scent or both appeared in a diurnally flowering population. An experimental array of 6 × 6 potted plants, mixed with 24 plants of H. fulva and 12 plants of either F1 or F2 hybrids, were placed in the field, and visitations of swallowtail butterflies and nocturnal hawkmoths were recorded with camcorders. Swallowtail butterflies preferentially visited reddish or orange-colored flowers and hawkmoths preferentially visited yellowish flowers. Neither swallowtail butterflies nor nocturnal hawkmoths showed significant preferences for overall scent emission. Our results suggest that mutations in flower color would be more relevant to the adaptive shift from a diurnally flowering ancestor to H. citrina than that in floral scent.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus