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Relative role of flower color and scent on pollinator attraction: experimental tests using F1 and F2 hybrids of daylily and nightlily.

Hirota SK, Nitta K, Kim Y, Kato A, Kawakubo N, Yasumoto AA, Yahara T - PLoS ONE (2012)

Bottom Line: Swallowtail butterflies preferentially visited reddish or orange-colored flowers and hawkmoths preferentially visited yellowish flowers.Neither swallowtail butterflies nor nocturnal hawkmoths showed significant preferences for overall scent emission.Our results suggest that mutations in flower color would be more relevant to the adaptive shift from a diurnally flowering ancestor to H. citrina than that in floral scent.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

ABSTRACT
The daylily (Hemerocallis fulva) and nightlily (H. citrina) are typical examples of a butterfly-pollination system and a hawkmoth-pollination system, respectively. H. fulva has diurnal, reddish or orange-colored flowers and is mainly pollinated by diurnal swallowtail butterflies. H. citrina has nocturnal, yellowish flowers with a sweet fragrance and is pollinated by nocturnal hawkmoths. We evaluated the relative roles of flower color and scent on the evolutionary shift from a diurnally flowering ancestor to H. citrina. We conducted a series of experiments that mimic situations in which mutants differing in either flower color, floral scent or both appeared in a diurnally flowering population. An experimental array of 6 × 6 potted plants, mixed with 24 plants of H. fulva and 12 plants of either F1 or F2 hybrids, were placed in the field, and visitations of swallowtail butterflies and nocturnal hawkmoths were recorded with camcorders. Swallowtail butterflies preferentially visited reddish or orange-colored flowers and hawkmoths preferentially visited yellowish flowers. Neither swallowtail butterflies nor nocturnal hawkmoths showed significant preferences for overall scent emission. Our results suggest that mutations in flower color would be more relevant to the adaptive shift from a diurnally flowering ancestor to H. citrina than that in floral scent.

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The number of four groups of flower visitors observed in each time zone.The number of visitors were pooled during the observation period of experiment 1 (A) and experiment 2 (B).
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pone-0039010-g007: The number of four groups of flower visitors observed in each time zone.The number of visitors were pooled during the observation period of experiment 1 (A) and experiment 2 (B).

Mentions: We observed a total of 930 pollinator visits in experiment 1, and 108 pollinator visits in experiment 2. The flower visitors were swallowtail butterflies (Papilio xuthus, P. memnon thunbergii and P. helenus nicconicolens), nymphalid butterflies (Argyreus hyperbius hyperbius), skipper butterflies (Parnara gutttata), hawkmoths (Theretra oldenlandiae and T. silhetensis), and carpenter bees (Xylocopa appendiculata circumvolans). Visits of swallowtail butterflies and hawkmoths amounted to 272 (26.2%) and 520 (50.1%) of the total of 1038 visits, respectively. Hawkmoths were observed exclusively in the evening, while the other species, butterflies and bees, were observed in the daytime (Fig. 7). Swallowtail butterflies were observed from 9:00 to 19:00. In experiment 1, they observed every period of daytime. In experiment 2, they were observed frequently during the morning. During the 15 days of experiment 1, swallowtail butterflies were observed on 10 days, hawkmoths on 12 days (Table 1), and both on 9 days. During these 9 days, 6.63±2.43 flowers of H. fulva were visited per day only by butterflies, 6.25±2.44 only by hawkmoths and 7.13±1.88 by both butterflies and hawkmoths. For flowers of F1 hybrids, 0.75±0.25 were visited only by butterflies, 6.88±0.52 only by hawkmoths and 2.50±0.71 by both butterflies and hawkmoths. During experiment 2, swallowtail butterflies were observed in 8 days, hawkmoths in 8 days, and both in 5 days. During these 5 days, the number of H. fulva flowers visited per day by either or both of butterflies and hawkmoths was 3.80±1.53 (only butterflies, mean ± SE), 1.20±0.73 (only hawkmoth) and 0.20±0.20 (both butterflies and hawkmoths). The number of F2 hybrids’ flowers visited per day by either or both of butterflies and hawkmoths was 0.40±0.24 (only butterflies), 1.80±0.66 (only hawkmoth) and 0 (both butterflies and hawkmoths). In the H. fulva only array, we observed 6 foraging bouts and 101 visits of hawkmoths during 5 days.


Relative role of flower color and scent on pollinator attraction: experimental tests using F1 and F2 hybrids of daylily and nightlily.

Hirota SK, Nitta K, Kim Y, Kato A, Kawakubo N, Yasumoto AA, Yahara T - PLoS ONE (2012)

The number of four groups of flower visitors observed in each time zone.The number of visitors were pooled during the observation period of experiment 1 (A) and experiment 2 (B).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3376114&req=5

pone-0039010-g007: The number of four groups of flower visitors observed in each time zone.The number of visitors were pooled during the observation period of experiment 1 (A) and experiment 2 (B).
Mentions: We observed a total of 930 pollinator visits in experiment 1, and 108 pollinator visits in experiment 2. The flower visitors were swallowtail butterflies (Papilio xuthus, P. memnon thunbergii and P. helenus nicconicolens), nymphalid butterflies (Argyreus hyperbius hyperbius), skipper butterflies (Parnara gutttata), hawkmoths (Theretra oldenlandiae and T. silhetensis), and carpenter bees (Xylocopa appendiculata circumvolans). Visits of swallowtail butterflies and hawkmoths amounted to 272 (26.2%) and 520 (50.1%) of the total of 1038 visits, respectively. Hawkmoths were observed exclusively in the evening, while the other species, butterflies and bees, were observed in the daytime (Fig. 7). Swallowtail butterflies were observed from 9:00 to 19:00. In experiment 1, they observed every period of daytime. In experiment 2, they were observed frequently during the morning. During the 15 days of experiment 1, swallowtail butterflies were observed on 10 days, hawkmoths on 12 days (Table 1), and both on 9 days. During these 9 days, 6.63±2.43 flowers of H. fulva were visited per day only by butterflies, 6.25±2.44 only by hawkmoths and 7.13±1.88 by both butterflies and hawkmoths. For flowers of F1 hybrids, 0.75±0.25 were visited only by butterflies, 6.88±0.52 only by hawkmoths and 2.50±0.71 by both butterflies and hawkmoths. During experiment 2, swallowtail butterflies were observed in 8 days, hawkmoths in 8 days, and both in 5 days. During these 5 days, the number of H. fulva flowers visited per day by either or both of butterflies and hawkmoths was 3.80±1.53 (only butterflies, mean ± SE), 1.20±0.73 (only hawkmoth) and 0.20±0.20 (both butterflies and hawkmoths). The number of F2 hybrids’ flowers visited per day by either or both of butterflies and hawkmoths was 0.40±0.24 (only butterflies), 1.80±0.66 (only hawkmoth) and 0 (both butterflies and hawkmoths). In the H. fulva only array, we observed 6 foraging bouts and 101 visits of hawkmoths during 5 days.

Bottom Line: Swallowtail butterflies preferentially visited reddish or orange-colored flowers and hawkmoths preferentially visited yellowish flowers.Neither swallowtail butterflies nor nocturnal hawkmoths showed significant preferences for overall scent emission.Our results suggest that mutations in flower color would be more relevant to the adaptive shift from a diurnally flowering ancestor to H. citrina than that in floral scent.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

ABSTRACT
The daylily (Hemerocallis fulva) and nightlily (H. citrina) are typical examples of a butterfly-pollination system and a hawkmoth-pollination system, respectively. H. fulva has diurnal, reddish or orange-colored flowers and is mainly pollinated by diurnal swallowtail butterflies. H. citrina has nocturnal, yellowish flowers with a sweet fragrance and is pollinated by nocturnal hawkmoths. We evaluated the relative roles of flower color and scent on the evolutionary shift from a diurnally flowering ancestor to H. citrina. We conducted a series of experiments that mimic situations in which mutants differing in either flower color, floral scent or both appeared in a diurnally flowering population. An experimental array of 6 × 6 potted plants, mixed with 24 plants of H. fulva and 12 plants of either F1 or F2 hybrids, were placed in the field, and visitations of swallowtail butterflies and nocturnal hawkmoths were recorded with camcorders. Swallowtail butterflies preferentially visited reddish or orange-colored flowers and hawkmoths preferentially visited yellowish flowers. Neither swallowtail butterflies nor nocturnal hawkmoths showed significant preferences for overall scent emission. Our results suggest that mutations in flower color would be more relevant to the adaptive shift from a diurnally flowering ancestor to H. citrina than that in floral scent.

Show MeSH