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Relative role of flower color and scent on pollinator attraction: experimental tests using F1 and F2 hybrids of daylily and nightlily.

Hirota SK, Nitta K, Kim Y, Kato A, Kawakubo N, Yasumoto AA, Yahara T - PLoS ONE (2012)

Bottom Line: Swallowtail butterflies preferentially visited reddish or orange-colored flowers and hawkmoths preferentially visited yellowish flowers.Neither swallowtail butterflies nor nocturnal hawkmoths showed significant preferences for overall scent emission.Our results suggest that mutations in flower color would be more relevant to the adaptive shift from a diurnally flowering ancestor to H. citrina than that in floral scent.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

ABSTRACT
The daylily (Hemerocallis fulva) and nightlily (H. citrina) are typical examples of a butterfly-pollination system and a hawkmoth-pollination system, respectively. H. fulva has diurnal, reddish or orange-colored flowers and is mainly pollinated by diurnal swallowtail butterflies. H. citrina has nocturnal, yellowish flowers with a sweet fragrance and is pollinated by nocturnal hawkmoths. We evaluated the relative roles of flower color and scent on the evolutionary shift from a diurnally flowering ancestor to H. citrina. We conducted a series of experiments that mimic situations in which mutants differing in either flower color, floral scent or both appeared in a diurnally flowering population. An experimental array of 6 × 6 potted plants, mixed with 24 plants of H. fulva and 12 plants of either F1 or F2 hybrids, were placed in the field, and visitations of swallowtail butterflies and nocturnal hawkmoths were recorded with camcorders. Swallowtail butterflies preferentially visited reddish or orange-colored flowers and hawkmoths preferentially visited yellowish flowers. Neither swallowtail butterflies nor nocturnal hawkmoths showed significant preferences for overall scent emission. Our results suggest that mutations in flower color would be more relevant to the adaptive shift from a diurnally flowering ancestor to H. citrina than that in floral scent.

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Flowers of H. fulva (A), F1 hybrid (B), H. citrina (C) and F2 hybrids (D-F).
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pone-0039010-g001: Flowers of H. fulva (A), F1 hybrid (B), H. citrina (C) and F2 hybrids (D-F).

Mentions: H. fulva, a butterfly-pollinated species, has diurnal, reddish or orange-colored flowers without scent and H. citrina, a hawkmoth-pollinated species has nocturnal, yellowish flowers with a sweet scent [4], [25]. According to a molecular phylogenetic study of Hemerocallis (Yasumoto et al., unpublished), H. citrina is closely related to diurnally flowering species (H. fulva and its relative) indicating that nocturnal flowering evolved from diurnal flowering in Hemerocallis. Hybrids of two species are highly fertile [26], and floral traits, including those of color and scent, are segregated in F2 hybrids (Fig. 1).


Relative role of flower color and scent on pollinator attraction: experimental tests using F1 and F2 hybrids of daylily and nightlily.

Hirota SK, Nitta K, Kim Y, Kato A, Kawakubo N, Yasumoto AA, Yahara T - PLoS ONE (2012)

Flowers of H. fulva (A), F1 hybrid (B), H. citrina (C) and F2 hybrids (D-F).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3376114&req=5

pone-0039010-g001: Flowers of H. fulva (A), F1 hybrid (B), H. citrina (C) and F2 hybrids (D-F).
Mentions: H. fulva, a butterfly-pollinated species, has diurnal, reddish or orange-colored flowers without scent and H. citrina, a hawkmoth-pollinated species has nocturnal, yellowish flowers with a sweet scent [4], [25]. According to a molecular phylogenetic study of Hemerocallis (Yasumoto et al., unpublished), H. citrina is closely related to diurnally flowering species (H. fulva and its relative) indicating that nocturnal flowering evolved from diurnal flowering in Hemerocallis. Hybrids of two species are highly fertile [26], and floral traits, including those of color and scent, are segregated in F2 hybrids (Fig. 1).

Bottom Line: Swallowtail butterflies preferentially visited reddish or orange-colored flowers and hawkmoths preferentially visited yellowish flowers.Neither swallowtail butterflies nor nocturnal hawkmoths showed significant preferences for overall scent emission.Our results suggest that mutations in flower color would be more relevant to the adaptive shift from a diurnally flowering ancestor to H. citrina than that in floral scent.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

ABSTRACT
The daylily (Hemerocallis fulva) and nightlily (H. citrina) are typical examples of a butterfly-pollination system and a hawkmoth-pollination system, respectively. H. fulva has diurnal, reddish or orange-colored flowers and is mainly pollinated by diurnal swallowtail butterflies. H. citrina has nocturnal, yellowish flowers with a sweet fragrance and is pollinated by nocturnal hawkmoths. We evaluated the relative roles of flower color and scent on the evolutionary shift from a diurnally flowering ancestor to H. citrina. We conducted a series of experiments that mimic situations in which mutants differing in either flower color, floral scent or both appeared in a diurnally flowering population. An experimental array of 6 × 6 potted plants, mixed with 24 plants of H. fulva and 12 plants of either F1 or F2 hybrids, were placed in the field, and visitations of swallowtail butterflies and nocturnal hawkmoths were recorded with camcorders. Swallowtail butterflies preferentially visited reddish or orange-colored flowers and hawkmoths preferentially visited yellowish flowers. Neither swallowtail butterflies nor nocturnal hawkmoths showed significant preferences for overall scent emission. Our results suggest that mutations in flower color would be more relevant to the adaptive shift from a diurnally flowering ancestor to H. citrina than that in floral scent.

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