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Conflict and emerging infectious diseases.

Gayer M, Legros D, Formenty P, Connolly MA - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2007)

Bottom Line: Detection and control of emerging infectious diseases in conflict situations are major challenges due to multiple risk factors known to enhance emergence and transmission of infectious diseases.These include inadequate surveillance and response systems, destroyed infrastructure, collapsed health systems and disruption of disease control programs, and infection control practices even more inadequate than those in resource-poor settings, as well as ongoing insecurity and poor coordination among humanitarian agencies.This article outlines factors that potentiate emergence and transmission of infectious diseases in conflict situations and highlights several priority actions for their containment and control.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Disease Control in Humanitarian Emerfencies, Health Security and Environmental Cluster, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. gayerm@who.int

ABSTRACT
Detection and control of emerging infectious diseases in conflict situations are major challenges due to multiple risk factors known to enhance emergence and transmission of infectious diseases. These include inadequate surveillance and response systems, destroyed infrastructure, collapsed health systems and disruption of disease control programs, and infection control practices even more inadequate than those in resource-poor settings, as well as ongoing insecurity and poor coordination among humanitarian agencies. This article outlines factors that potentiate emergence and transmission of infectious diseases in conflict situations and highlights several priority actions for their containment and control.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Geographic distribution of recent emerging or reemerging infectious disease outbreaks and countries affected by conflict, 1990–2006. Countries in yellow were affected by conflict during this period (source: Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, World Health Organization, www.reliefweb.int/ocha_ol/onlinehp.html). Symbols indicate outbreaks of emerging or reemerging infectious diseases during this period (source: Epidemic and Pandemic Alert and Response, World Health Organization, www.who.int/csr/en). Circles indicate diseases of viral origin, stars indicate diseases of bacterial origin, and triangles indicate diseases of parasitic origin. CCHF, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever; SARS-CoV, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus.
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Figure 1: Geographic distribution of recent emerging or reemerging infectious disease outbreaks and countries affected by conflict, 1990–2006. Countries in yellow were affected by conflict during this period (source: Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, World Health Organization, www.reliefweb.int/ocha_ol/onlinehp.html). Symbols indicate outbreaks of emerging or reemerging infectious diseases during this period (source: Epidemic and Pandemic Alert and Response, World Health Organization, www.who.int/csr/en). Circles indicate diseases of viral origin, stars indicate diseases of bacterial origin, and triangles indicate diseases of parasitic origin. CCHF, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever; SARS-CoV, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus.

Mentions: Conflict may lead to the displacement of large populations into temporary settlements or camps with overcrowding and rudimentary shelters, inadequate safe water and sanitation, and increased exposure to disease vectors during the acute phase of the emergency. In protracted and postconflict situations, populations may have high rates of illness and mortality due to breakdown of health systems, flight of trained staff, failure of existing disease control programs, and destroyed infrastructure. These populations may be more vulnerable to infection and disease because of high levels of undernutrition or malnutrition, low vaccine coverage, or long-term stress. Long-term consequences of civil war can affect entire countries (such as Angola, the Democratic Republic of the Congo [DRC], or Afghanistan) because of chronic lack of investment in health, education, and public works. These conditions, which are encountered during or after war and conflict, favor emergence of infectious diseases. Examples of emerging infectious diseases in conflict situations, where several overlapping risk factors are often involved, are numerous (Figure).


Conflict and emerging infectious diseases.

Gayer M, Legros D, Formenty P, Connolly MA - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2007)

Geographic distribution of recent emerging or reemerging infectious disease outbreaks and countries affected by conflict, 1990–2006. Countries in yellow were affected by conflict during this period (source: Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, World Health Organization, www.reliefweb.int/ocha_ol/onlinehp.html). Symbols indicate outbreaks of emerging or reemerging infectious diseases during this period (source: Epidemic and Pandemic Alert and Response, World Health Organization, www.who.int/csr/en). Circles indicate diseases of viral origin, stars indicate diseases of bacterial origin, and triangles indicate diseases of parasitic origin. CCHF, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever; SARS-CoV, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3375795&req=5

Figure 1: Geographic distribution of recent emerging or reemerging infectious disease outbreaks and countries affected by conflict, 1990–2006. Countries in yellow were affected by conflict during this period (source: Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, World Health Organization, www.reliefweb.int/ocha_ol/onlinehp.html). Symbols indicate outbreaks of emerging or reemerging infectious diseases during this period (source: Epidemic and Pandemic Alert and Response, World Health Organization, www.who.int/csr/en). Circles indicate diseases of viral origin, stars indicate diseases of bacterial origin, and triangles indicate diseases of parasitic origin. CCHF, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever; SARS-CoV, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus.
Mentions: Conflict may lead to the displacement of large populations into temporary settlements or camps with overcrowding and rudimentary shelters, inadequate safe water and sanitation, and increased exposure to disease vectors during the acute phase of the emergency. In protracted and postconflict situations, populations may have high rates of illness and mortality due to breakdown of health systems, flight of trained staff, failure of existing disease control programs, and destroyed infrastructure. These populations may be more vulnerable to infection and disease because of high levels of undernutrition or malnutrition, low vaccine coverage, or long-term stress. Long-term consequences of civil war can affect entire countries (such as Angola, the Democratic Republic of the Congo [DRC], or Afghanistan) because of chronic lack of investment in health, education, and public works. These conditions, which are encountered during or after war and conflict, favor emergence of infectious diseases. Examples of emerging infectious diseases in conflict situations, where several overlapping risk factors are often involved, are numerous (Figure).

Bottom Line: Detection and control of emerging infectious diseases in conflict situations are major challenges due to multiple risk factors known to enhance emergence and transmission of infectious diseases.These include inadequate surveillance and response systems, destroyed infrastructure, collapsed health systems and disruption of disease control programs, and infection control practices even more inadequate than those in resource-poor settings, as well as ongoing insecurity and poor coordination among humanitarian agencies.This article outlines factors that potentiate emergence and transmission of infectious diseases in conflict situations and highlights several priority actions for their containment and control.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Disease Control in Humanitarian Emerfencies, Health Security and Environmental Cluster, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. gayerm@who.int

ABSTRACT
Detection and control of emerging infectious diseases in conflict situations are major challenges due to multiple risk factors known to enhance emergence and transmission of infectious diseases. These include inadequate surveillance and response systems, destroyed infrastructure, collapsed health systems and disruption of disease control programs, and infection control practices even more inadequate than those in resource-poor settings, as well as ongoing insecurity and poor coordination among humanitarian agencies. This article outlines factors that potentiate emergence and transmission of infectious diseases in conflict situations and highlights several priority actions for their containment and control.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus