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Protection and virus shedding of falcons vaccinated against highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (H5N1).

Lierz M, Hafez HM, Klopfleisch R, Lüschow D, Prusas C, Teifke JP, Rudolf M, Grund C, Kalthoff D, Mettenleiter T, Beer M, Hardert T - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2007)

Bottom Line: We then challenged 5 vaccinated and 5 nonvaccinated falcons with HPAI (H5N1).All vaccinated birds survived; all unvaccinated birds died within 5 days.Vaccination could protect these valuable birds and, through reduced virus shedding, reduce risk for transmission to other avian species and humans.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Poultry Disease, Freie Universität, Berlin, Germany. lierz.michael@vetmed.fu-berlin.de

ABSTRACT
Because fatal infections with highly pathogenic avian influenza A (HPAI) virus subtype H5N1 have been reported in birds of prey, we sought to determine detailed information about the birds' susceptibility and protection after vaccination. Ten falcons vaccinated with an inactivated influenza virus (H5N2) vaccine seroconverted. We then challenged 5 vaccinated and 5 nonvaccinated falcons with HPAI (H5N1). All vaccinated birds survived; all unvaccinated birds died within 5 days. For the nonvaccinated birds, histopathologic examination showed tissue degeneration and necrosis, immunohistochemical techniques showed influenza virus antigen in affected tissues, and these birds shed high levels of infectious virus from the oropharynx and cloaca. Vaccinated birds showed no influenza virus antigen in tissues and shed virus at lower titers from the oropharynx only. Vaccination could protect these valuable birds and, through reduced virus shedding, reduce risk for transmission to other avian species and humans.

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Immunohistochemical demonstration of influenza A virus antigen (red, see arrows) in numerous splenic macrophages of a falcon after challenge with 106.0 50% egg infectious doses of the highly pathogenic avian influenza strain A/Cygnus cygnus/Germany/R65/06 (H5N1). Avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method. Bar = 25 μm.
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Figure 2: Immunohistochemical demonstration of influenza A virus antigen (red, see arrows) in numerous splenic macrophages of a falcon after challenge with 106.0 50% egg infectious doses of the highly pathogenic avian influenza strain A/Cygnus cygnus/Germany/R65/06 (H5N1). Avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method. Bar = 25 μm.

Mentions: Necropsy showed multifocal acute hemorrhagic necrosis in the pancreas of 3 birds that died spontaneously and moderate to severe splenic hyperplasia in 3 birds. Histopathologic examination of the cerebellum, cerebrum, spinal cord, pancreas, spleen, and kidney of the nonvaccinated birds showed multifocal acute cellular degeneration and necrosis associated with minimal to mild infiltration of few heterophils and detection of HPAI virus antigen (Figure 2). Furthermore, antigen was present in the nasal cavity, trachea, bronchial epithelium, and gastrointestinal tract but not in the liver and skin. None of the euthanized vaccinated birds exhibited any gross or histologic lesions or presence of antigen in any of the tissues.


Protection and virus shedding of falcons vaccinated against highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (H5N1).

Lierz M, Hafez HM, Klopfleisch R, Lüschow D, Prusas C, Teifke JP, Rudolf M, Grund C, Kalthoff D, Mettenleiter T, Beer M, Hardert T - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2007)

Immunohistochemical demonstration of influenza A virus antigen (red, see arrows) in numerous splenic macrophages of a falcon after challenge with 106.0 50% egg infectious doses of the highly pathogenic avian influenza strain A/Cygnus cygnus/Germany/R65/06 (H5N1). Avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method. Bar = 25 μm.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3375792&req=5

Figure 2: Immunohistochemical demonstration of influenza A virus antigen (red, see arrows) in numerous splenic macrophages of a falcon after challenge with 106.0 50% egg infectious doses of the highly pathogenic avian influenza strain A/Cygnus cygnus/Germany/R65/06 (H5N1). Avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method. Bar = 25 μm.
Mentions: Necropsy showed multifocal acute hemorrhagic necrosis in the pancreas of 3 birds that died spontaneously and moderate to severe splenic hyperplasia in 3 birds. Histopathologic examination of the cerebellum, cerebrum, spinal cord, pancreas, spleen, and kidney of the nonvaccinated birds showed multifocal acute cellular degeneration and necrosis associated with minimal to mild infiltration of few heterophils and detection of HPAI virus antigen (Figure 2). Furthermore, antigen was present in the nasal cavity, trachea, bronchial epithelium, and gastrointestinal tract but not in the liver and skin. None of the euthanized vaccinated birds exhibited any gross or histologic lesions or presence of antigen in any of the tissues.

Bottom Line: We then challenged 5 vaccinated and 5 nonvaccinated falcons with HPAI (H5N1).All vaccinated birds survived; all unvaccinated birds died within 5 days.Vaccination could protect these valuable birds and, through reduced virus shedding, reduce risk for transmission to other avian species and humans.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Poultry Disease, Freie Universität, Berlin, Germany. lierz.michael@vetmed.fu-berlin.de

ABSTRACT
Because fatal infections with highly pathogenic avian influenza A (HPAI) virus subtype H5N1 have been reported in birds of prey, we sought to determine detailed information about the birds' susceptibility and protection after vaccination. Ten falcons vaccinated with an inactivated influenza virus (H5N2) vaccine seroconverted. We then challenged 5 vaccinated and 5 nonvaccinated falcons with HPAI (H5N1). All vaccinated birds survived; all unvaccinated birds died within 5 days. For the nonvaccinated birds, histopathologic examination showed tissue degeneration and necrosis, immunohistochemical techniques showed influenza virus antigen in affected tissues, and these birds shed high levels of infectious virus from the oropharynx and cloaca. Vaccinated birds showed no influenza virus antigen in tissues and shed virus at lower titers from the oropharynx only. Vaccination could protect these valuable birds and, through reduced virus shedding, reduce risk for transmission to other avian species and humans.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus