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Epidemiologic and virologic investigation of hand, foot, and mouth disease, southern Vietnam, 2005.

Tu PV, Thao NT, Perera D, Huu TK, Tien NT, Thuong TC, How OM, Cardosa MJ, McMinn PC - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2007)

Bottom Line: HEV71 was isolated throughout the year, with a period of higher prevalence in October-November.Phylogenetic analysis of 23 HEV71 isolates showed that during the first half of 2005, viruses belonging to 3 subgenogroups, C1, C4, and a previously undescribed subgenogroup, C5, cocirculated in southern Vietnam.In the second half of the year, viruses belonging to subgenogroup C5 predominated during a period of higher HEV71 activity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Pasteur Institute, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

ABSTRACT
During 2005, 764 children were brought to a large children's hospital in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, with a diagnosis of hand, foot, and mouth disease. All enrolled children had specimens (vesicle fluid, stool, throat swab) collected for enterovirus isolation by cell culture. An enterovirus was isolated from 411 (53.8%) of the specimens: 173 (42.1%) isolates were identified as human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) and 214 (52.1%) as coxsackievirus A16. Of the identified HEV71 infections, 51 (29.5%) were complicated by acute neurologic disease and 3 (1.7%) were fatal. HEV71 was isolated throughout the year, with a period of higher prevalence in October-November. Phylogenetic analysis of 23 HEV71 isolates showed that during the first half of 2005, viruses belonging to 3 subgenogroups, C1, C4, and a previously undescribed subgenogroup, C5, cocirculated in southern Vietnam. In the second half of the year, viruses belonging to subgenogroup C5 predominated during a period of higher HEV71 activity.

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Dendrogram constructed by using the neighbor-joining method (25) showing the genetic relationships between 23 human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) strains isolated in southern Vietnam during 2005 (underlined), based on the alignment of complete VP1 gene sequences. Branch lengths are proportional to the number of nucleotide differences. The bootstrap values in 1,000 pseudoreplicates for major lineages within the tree are shown as percentages. The marker denotes a measurement of relative phylogenetic distance. Strain names indicate a unique numerical abbreviation of country and year of isolation. Asterisks (*) denote HEV71 isolates obtained from fatal cases. The prototype coxsackievirus 16 (CVA16)–G10 strain (28) was used as an outgroup. The dendrogram shows genogroups A, B, and C as identified by Brown et al. (24). Details of the strains used to prepare the dendrogram are shown in Table 1.
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Figure 5: Dendrogram constructed by using the neighbor-joining method (25) showing the genetic relationships between 23 human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) strains isolated in southern Vietnam during 2005 (underlined), based on the alignment of complete VP1 gene sequences. Branch lengths are proportional to the number of nucleotide differences. The bootstrap values in 1,000 pseudoreplicates for major lineages within the tree are shown as percentages. The marker denotes a measurement of relative phylogenetic distance. Strain names indicate a unique numerical abbreviation of country and year of isolation. Asterisks (*) denote HEV71 isolates obtained from fatal cases. The prototype coxsackievirus 16 (CVA16)–G10 strain (28) was used as an outgroup. The dendrogram shows genogroups A, B, and C as identified by Brown et al. (24). Details of the strains used to prepare the dendrogram are shown in Table 1.

Mentions: Because we had identified a putative new subgenogroup of HEV71 (C5) by analysis of complete VP4 and partial VP1 gene sequences (Figure 3, panel B), we conducted further nucleotide sequence analysis of the complete VP1 gene of 23 HEV71 isolates whose VP4 sequences were representative of all clusters observed in dendrograms generated from the screening data (9,24). Complete VP1 gene sequence analysis is considered the most rigorous method for determining the molecular phylogeny of HEV71 strains (6,24), and our analysis needed to be confirmed with a subset of all the isolates (Figure 5). We used previously published VP1 gene cDNA sequences to reconstruct the subgenogroup lineage structure of HEV71, first identified by Brown et al. (24) (Table 2).


Epidemiologic and virologic investigation of hand, foot, and mouth disease, southern Vietnam, 2005.

Tu PV, Thao NT, Perera D, Huu TK, Tien NT, Thuong TC, How OM, Cardosa MJ, McMinn PC - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2007)

Dendrogram constructed by using the neighbor-joining method (25) showing the genetic relationships between 23 human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) strains isolated in southern Vietnam during 2005 (underlined), based on the alignment of complete VP1 gene sequences. Branch lengths are proportional to the number of nucleotide differences. The bootstrap values in 1,000 pseudoreplicates for major lineages within the tree are shown as percentages. The marker denotes a measurement of relative phylogenetic distance. Strain names indicate a unique numerical abbreviation of country and year of isolation. Asterisks (*) denote HEV71 isolates obtained from fatal cases. The prototype coxsackievirus 16 (CVA16)–G10 strain (28) was used as an outgroup. The dendrogram shows genogroups A, B, and C as identified by Brown et al. (24). Details of the strains used to prepare the dendrogram are shown in Table 1.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3375788&req=5

Figure 5: Dendrogram constructed by using the neighbor-joining method (25) showing the genetic relationships between 23 human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) strains isolated in southern Vietnam during 2005 (underlined), based on the alignment of complete VP1 gene sequences. Branch lengths are proportional to the number of nucleotide differences. The bootstrap values in 1,000 pseudoreplicates for major lineages within the tree are shown as percentages. The marker denotes a measurement of relative phylogenetic distance. Strain names indicate a unique numerical abbreviation of country and year of isolation. Asterisks (*) denote HEV71 isolates obtained from fatal cases. The prototype coxsackievirus 16 (CVA16)–G10 strain (28) was used as an outgroup. The dendrogram shows genogroups A, B, and C as identified by Brown et al. (24). Details of the strains used to prepare the dendrogram are shown in Table 1.
Mentions: Because we had identified a putative new subgenogroup of HEV71 (C5) by analysis of complete VP4 and partial VP1 gene sequences (Figure 3, panel B), we conducted further nucleotide sequence analysis of the complete VP1 gene of 23 HEV71 isolates whose VP4 sequences were representative of all clusters observed in dendrograms generated from the screening data (9,24). Complete VP1 gene sequence analysis is considered the most rigorous method for determining the molecular phylogeny of HEV71 strains (6,24), and our analysis needed to be confirmed with a subset of all the isolates (Figure 5). We used previously published VP1 gene cDNA sequences to reconstruct the subgenogroup lineage structure of HEV71, first identified by Brown et al. (24) (Table 2).

Bottom Line: HEV71 was isolated throughout the year, with a period of higher prevalence in October-November.Phylogenetic analysis of 23 HEV71 isolates showed that during the first half of 2005, viruses belonging to 3 subgenogroups, C1, C4, and a previously undescribed subgenogroup, C5, cocirculated in southern Vietnam.In the second half of the year, viruses belonging to subgenogroup C5 predominated during a period of higher HEV71 activity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Pasteur Institute, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

ABSTRACT
During 2005, 764 children were brought to a large children's hospital in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, with a diagnosis of hand, foot, and mouth disease. All enrolled children had specimens (vesicle fluid, stool, throat swab) collected for enterovirus isolation by cell culture. An enterovirus was isolated from 411 (53.8%) of the specimens: 173 (42.1%) isolates were identified as human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) and 214 (52.1%) as coxsackievirus A16. Of the identified HEV71 infections, 51 (29.5%) were complicated by acute neurologic disease and 3 (1.7%) were fatal. HEV71 was isolated throughout the year, with a period of higher prevalence in October-November. Phylogenetic analysis of 23 HEV71 isolates showed that during the first half of 2005, viruses belonging to 3 subgenogroups, C1, C4, and a previously undescribed subgenogroup, C5, cocirculated in southern Vietnam. In the second half of the year, viruses belonging to subgenogroup C5 predominated during a period of higher HEV71 activity.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus