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Diagnosis of Malaria Infection with or without Disease.

Bisoffi Z, Gobbi F, Buonfrate D, Van den Ende J - Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis (2012)

Bottom Line: Excessive reliance on RDTs may cause overlooking potentially severe non malarial febrile illnesses (NMFI) in these cases.In countries or areas where transmission intensity remains very high, fever management in children (especially in the rainy season) should probably remain presumptive, as a test-based management may not be safe, nor cost effective.In contrast, in countries with low transmission, including those targeted for malaria elimination, RDTs are a key resource to limit unnecessary antimalarial prescription and to identify pockets of infected individuals.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Tropical Diseases, Ospedale Sacro cuore, Negrar (Verona), Italy.

ABSTRACT
The revised W.H.O. guidelines for malaria management in endemic countries recommend that treatment should be reserved to laboratory confirmed cases, both for adults and children. Currently the most widely used tools are rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), that are accurate and reliable in diagnosing malaria infection. However, an infection is not necessarily a clinical malaria, and RDTs may give positive results in febrile patients who have another cause of fever. Excessive reliance on RDTs may cause overlooking potentially severe non malarial febrile illnesses (NMFI) in these cases. In countries or areas where transmission intensity remains very high, fever management in children (especially in the rainy season) should probably remain presumptive, as a test-based management may not be safe, nor cost effective. In contrast, in countries with low transmission, including those targeted for malaria elimination, RDTs are a key resource to limit unnecessary antimalarial prescription and to identify pockets of infected individuals. Research should focus on very sensitive tools for infection on one side, and on improved tools for clinical management on the other, including biomarkers of clinical malaria and/or of alternative causes of fever.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Grafic representation of the attributable fraction (AF) of fever to malaria infection, based on data in Table 1. The area of the squares is proportional to the size of each group. Fevers attributable to malaria (in red) are only a proportion of infected subjects with fever, while in yellow are represented fevers likely to be due to another cause, albeit some are observed in plasmodia carriers.
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f1-mjhid-4-1-e2012036: Grafic representation of the attributable fraction (AF) of fever to malaria infection, based on data in Table 1. The area of the squares is proportional to the size of each group. Fevers attributable to malaria (in red) are only a proportion of infected subjects with fever, while in yellow are represented fevers likely to be due to another cause, albeit some are observed in plasmodia carriers.

Mentions: In normal language this means that 63% of children with fever and parasites are presumed to be ill due to malaria, in the other 37% the fever is probably caused by another disease (see Figure 1 for a visual representation).


Diagnosis of Malaria Infection with or without Disease.

Bisoffi Z, Gobbi F, Buonfrate D, Van den Ende J - Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis (2012)

Grafic representation of the attributable fraction (AF) of fever to malaria infection, based on data in Table 1. The area of the squares is proportional to the size of each group. Fevers attributable to malaria (in red) are only a proportion of infected subjects with fever, while in yellow are represented fevers likely to be due to another cause, albeit some are observed in plasmodia carriers.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3375766&req=5

f1-mjhid-4-1-e2012036: Grafic representation of the attributable fraction (AF) of fever to malaria infection, based on data in Table 1. The area of the squares is proportional to the size of each group. Fevers attributable to malaria (in red) are only a proportion of infected subjects with fever, while in yellow are represented fevers likely to be due to another cause, albeit some are observed in plasmodia carriers.
Mentions: In normal language this means that 63% of children with fever and parasites are presumed to be ill due to malaria, in the other 37% the fever is probably caused by another disease (see Figure 1 for a visual representation).

Bottom Line: Excessive reliance on RDTs may cause overlooking potentially severe non malarial febrile illnesses (NMFI) in these cases.In countries or areas where transmission intensity remains very high, fever management in children (especially in the rainy season) should probably remain presumptive, as a test-based management may not be safe, nor cost effective.In contrast, in countries with low transmission, including those targeted for malaria elimination, RDTs are a key resource to limit unnecessary antimalarial prescription and to identify pockets of infected individuals.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Tropical Diseases, Ospedale Sacro cuore, Negrar (Verona), Italy.

ABSTRACT
The revised W.H.O. guidelines for malaria management in endemic countries recommend that treatment should be reserved to laboratory confirmed cases, both for adults and children. Currently the most widely used tools are rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), that are accurate and reliable in diagnosing malaria infection. However, an infection is not necessarily a clinical malaria, and RDTs may give positive results in febrile patients who have another cause of fever. Excessive reliance on RDTs may cause overlooking potentially severe non malarial febrile illnesses (NMFI) in these cases. In countries or areas where transmission intensity remains very high, fever management in children (especially in the rainy season) should probably remain presumptive, as a test-based management may not be safe, nor cost effective. In contrast, in countries with low transmission, including those targeted for malaria elimination, RDTs are a key resource to limit unnecessary antimalarial prescription and to identify pockets of infected individuals. Research should focus on very sensitive tools for infection on one side, and on improved tools for clinical management on the other, including biomarkers of clinical malaria and/or of alternative causes of fever.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus