Limits...
Why Chunking Should be Considered as an Explanation for Developmental Change before Short-Term Memory Capacity and Processing Speed.

Jones G - Front Psychol (2012)

Bottom Line: This paper illustrates the chunking hypothesis in the domain of non-word repetition, a task that is a strong predictor of a child's language learning.A computer simulation of non-word repetition that instantiates the chunking mechanism shows that: (1) chunking causes task behavior to improve over time, consistent with children's performance; and (2) chunking causes perceived changes in areas such as short-term memory capacity and processing speed that are often cited as mechanisms of child development.Researchers should be cautious when considering explanations of developmental data, since chunking may be able to explain differences in performance without the need for additional mechanisms of development.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Psychology, Nottingham Trent University Nottingham, UK.

ABSTRACT
The chunking hypothesis suggests that during the repeated exposure of stimulus material, information is organized into increasingly larger chunks. Many researchers have not considered the full power of the chunking hypothesis as both a learning mechanism and as an explanation of human behavior. Indeed, in developmental psychology there is relatively little mention of chunking and yet it can be the underlying cause of some of the mechanisms of development that have been proposed. This paper illustrates the chunking hypothesis in the domain of non-word repetition, a task that is a strong predictor of a child's language learning. A computer simulation of non-word repetition that instantiates the chunking mechanism shows that: (1) chunking causes task behavior to improve over time, consistent with children's performance; and (2) chunking causes perceived changes in areas such as short-term memory capacity and processing speed that are often cited as mechanisms of child development. Researchers should be cautious when considering explanations of developmental data, since chunking may be able to explain differences in performance without the need for additional mechanisms of development.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Four- to five-year-old children’s non-word repetition performance together with the model’s performance late in its training. Error bars indicate standard deviation.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3375604&req=5

Figure 3: Four- to five-year-old children’s non-word repetition performance together with the model’s performance late in its training. Error bars indicate standard deviation.

Mentions: The model is compared to the children’s non-word repetition results of Jones et al. (2007). As Figures 2 and 3 show, the model provides a good fit to the data3: correlations are 0.99 between the early model and the 2- to 3-year-old data and 0.96 between the late model and the 4- to 5-year-old data; RMSE scores are 4.55 when comparing the early model with the 2- to 3-year-old children and 3.87 when comparing the late model with the 4- to 5-year-old children. The RMSE scores indicate the percentage discrepancy between the NWR performance of the model and the NWR performance of the children. Developmental research involving children’s problem solving suggests that an RMSE of approximately 5% would indicate a very good fit between data and model (Jones et al., 2000). The RMSE scores in the current research indicate that across non-word lengths, the NWR score of the early model averages to be within 4.55% of the 2- to 3-year-old children. The late model averages a NWR score that is within 3.87% of the 4- to 5-year-old children. The model not only closely matches the trends in the child data but it also matches closely the actual repetition performance of the children.


Why Chunking Should be Considered as an Explanation for Developmental Change before Short-Term Memory Capacity and Processing Speed.

Jones G - Front Psychol (2012)

Four- to five-year-old children’s non-word repetition performance together with the model’s performance late in its training. Error bars indicate standard deviation.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3375604&req=5

Figure 3: Four- to five-year-old children’s non-word repetition performance together with the model’s performance late in its training. Error bars indicate standard deviation.
Mentions: The model is compared to the children’s non-word repetition results of Jones et al. (2007). As Figures 2 and 3 show, the model provides a good fit to the data3: correlations are 0.99 between the early model and the 2- to 3-year-old data and 0.96 between the late model and the 4- to 5-year-old data; RMSE scores are 4.55 when comparing the early model with the 2- to 3-year-old children and 3.87 when comparing the late model with the 4- to 5-year-old children. The RMSE scores indicate the percentage discrepancy between the NWR performance of the model and the NWR performance of the children. Developmental research involving children’s problem solving suggests that an RMSE of approximately 5% would indicate a very good fit between data and model (Jones et al., 2000). The RMSE scores in the current research indicate that across non-word lengths, the NWR score of the early model averages to be within 4.55% of the 2- to 3-year-old children. The late model averages a NWR score that is within 3.87% of the 4- to 5-year-old children. The model not only closely matches the trends in the child data but it also matches closely the actual repetition performance of the children.

Bottom Line: This paper illustrates the chunking hypothesis in the domain of non-word repetition, a task that is a strong predictor of a child's language learning.A computer simulation of non-word repetition that instantiates the chunking mechanism shows that: (1) chunking causes task behavior to improve over time, consistent with children's performance; and (2) chunking causes perceived changes in areas such as short-term memory capacity and processing speed that are often cited as mechanisms of child development.Researchers should be cautious when considering explanations of developmental data, since chunking may be able to explain differences in performance without the need for additional mechanisms of development.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Psychology, Nottingham Trent University Nottingham, UK.

ABSTRACT
The chunking hypothesis suggests that during the repeated exposure of stimulus material, information is organized into increasingly larger chunks. Many researchers have not considered the full power of the chunking hypothesis as both a learning mechanism and as an explanation of human behavior. Indeed, in developmental psychology there is relatively little mention of chunking and yet it can be the underlying cause of some of the mechanisms of development that have been proposed. This paper illustrates the chunking hypothesis in the domain of non-word repetition, a task that is a strong predictor of a child's language learning. A computer simulation of non-word repetition that instantiates the chunking mechanism shows that: (1) chunking causes task behavior to improve over time, consistent with children's performance; and (2) chunking causes perceived changes in areas such as short-term memory capacity and processing speed that are often cited as mechanisms of child development. Researchers should be cautious when considering explanations of developmental data, since chunking may be able to explain differences in performance without the need for additional mechanisms of development.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus