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Why Chunking Should be Considered as an Explanation for Developmental Change before Short-Term Memory Capacity and Processing Speed.

Jones G - Front Psychol (2012)

Bottom Line: This paper illustrates the chunking hypothesis in the domain of non-word repetition, a task that is a strong predictor of a child's language learning.A computer simulation of non-word repetition that instantiates the chunking mechanism shows that: (1) chunking causes task behavior to improve over time, consistent with children's performance; and (2) chunking causes perceived changes in areas such as short-term memory capacity and processing speed that are often cited as mechanisms of child development.Researchers should be cautious when considering explanations of developmental data, since chunking may be able to explain differences in performance without the need for additional mechanisms of development.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Psychology, Nottingham Trent University Nottingham, UK.

ABSTRACT
The chunking hypothesis suggests that during the repeated exposure of stimulus material, information is organized into increasingly larger chunks. Many researchers have not considered the full power of the chunking hypothesis as both a learning mechanism and as an explanation of human behavior. Indeed, in developmental psychology there is relatively little mention of chunking and yet it can be the underlying cause of some of the mechanisms of development that have been proposed. This paper illustrates the chunking hypothesis in the domain of non-word repetition, a task that is a strong predictor of a child's language learning. A computer simulation of non-word repetition that instantiates the chunking mechanism shows that: (1) chunking causes task behavior to improve over time, consistent with children's performance; and (2) chunking causes perceived changes in areas such as short-term memory capacity and processing speed that are often cited as mechanisms of child development. Researchers should be cautious when considering explanations of developmental data, since chunking may be able to explain differences in performance without the need for additional mechanisms of development.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

An example of a chunk hierarchy within the model. In this instance, the chunks for “,” “,” and “” have each been learnt incrementally. Each chunk is represented by an ellipse. The topmost chunk (the “root”) is always empty.
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FA1: An example of a chunk hierarchy within the model. In this instance, the chunks for “,” “,” and “” have each been learnt incrementally. Each chunk is represented by an ellipse. The topmost chunk (the “root”) is always empty.

Mentions: Chunks within the model are hierarchical and contain sequences of one phoneme or more. As one proceeds further down the chunk hierarchy, chunks get progressively larger – thus the chunked knowledge is represented as a tree-like structure. For example, the word “cup” might have been progressively chunked, with “” having the chunk “” below it, which in turn is above the chunk “.” The hierarchical structure means that the temporal sequence of phonemes is maintained – therefore chunks further down the hierarchy contain the phoneme sequence of their parent chunk plus additional phoneme(s) that occurred after the parent phoneme sequence in the input. The link between each parent and child chunk contains the additional phoneme(s). An example hierarchy of chunks is given in Figure A1. Here it can be seen that the model has chunked each of the words “Cup,” “Can,” and “Cap.”


Why Chunking Should be Considered as an Explanation for Developmental Change before Short-Term Memory Capacity and Processing Speed.

Jones G - Front Psychol (2012)

An example of a chunk hierarchy within the model. In this instance, the chunks for “,” “,” and “” have each been learnt incrementally. Each chunk is represented by an ellipse. The topmost chunk (the “root”) is always empty.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3375604&req=5

FA1: An example of a chunk hierarchy within the model. In this instance, the chunks for “,” “,” and “” have each been learnt incrementally. Each chunk is represented by an ellipse. The topmost chunk (the “root”) is always empty.
Mentions: Chunks within the model are hierarchical and contain sequences of one phoneme or more. As one proceeds further down the chunk hierarchy, chunks get progressively larger – thus the chunked knowledge is represented as a tree-like structure. For example, the word “cup” might have been progressively chunked, with “” having the chunk “” below it, which in turn is above the chunk “.” The hierarchical structure means that the temporal sequence of phonemes is maintained – therefore chunks further down the hierarchy contain the phoneme sequence of their parent chunk plus additional phoneme(s) that occurred after the parent phoneme sequence in the input. The link between each parent and child chunk contains the additional phoneme(s). An example hierarchy of chunks is given in Figure A1. Here it can be seen that the model has chunked each of the words “Cup,” “Can,” and “Cap.”

Bottom Line: This paper illustrates the chunking hypothesis in the domain of non-word repetition, a task that is a strong predictor of a child's language learning.A computer simulation of non-word repetition that instantiates the chunking mechanism shows that: (1) chunking causes task behavior to improve over time, consistent with children's performance; and (2) chunking causes perceived changes in areas such as short-term memory capacity and processing speed that are often cited as mechanisms of child development.Researchers should be cautious when considering explanations of developmental data, since chunking may be able to explain differences in performance without the need for additional mechanisms of development.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Psychology, Nottingham Trent University Nottingham, UK.

ABSTRACT
The chunking hypothesis suggests that during the repeated exposure of stimulus material, information is organized into increasingly larger chunks. Many researchers have not considered the full power of the chunking hypothesis as both a learning mechanism and as an explanation of human behavior. Indeed, in developmental psychology there is relatively little mention of chunking and yet it can be the underlying cause of some of the mechanisms of development that have been proposed. This paper illustrates the chunking hypothesis in the domain of non-word repetition, a task that is a strong predictor of a child's language learning. A computer simulation of non-word repetition that instantiates the chunking mechanism shows that: (1) chunking causes task behavior to improve over time, consistent with children's performance; and (2) chunking causes perceived changes in areas such as short-term memory capacity and processing speed that are often cited as mechanisms of child development. Researchers should be cautious when considering explanations of developmental data, since chunking may be able to explain differences in performance without the need for additional mechanisms of development.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus