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Persistent perceptual delay for head movement onset relative to auditory stimuli of different durations and rise times.

Barnett-Cowan M, Raeder SM, Bülthoff HH - Exp Brain Res (2012)

Bottom Line: It has been recently reported, however, that despite having similar transduction latencies, vestibular stimuli are perceived significantly later than auditory stimuli when simultaneously generated.Head movements paired with long square sounds (~100 ms) were not significantly different than brief sounds.Rather, differences between sound conditions were found to be attributable to variability in the time for head movement to reach peak velocity: the head moved faster when paired with a brief sound.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Human Perception, Cognition and Action, Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Tübingen, Germany. mbarnettcowan@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The perception of simultaneity between auditory and vestibular information is crucially important for maintaining a coherent representation of the acoustic environment whenever the head moves. It has been recently reported, however, that despite having similar transduction latencies, vestibular stimuli are perceived significantly later than auditory stimuli when simultaneously generated. This suggests that perceptual latency of a head movement is longer than a co-occurring sound. However, these studies paired a vestibular stimulation of long duration (~1 s) and of a continuously changing temporal envelope with a brief (10-50 ms) sound pulse. In the present study, the stimuli were matched for temporal envelope duration and shape. Participants judged the temporal order of the two stimuli, the onset of an active head movement and the onset of brief (50 ms) or long (1,400 ms) sounds with a square- or raised-cosine-shaped envelope. Consistent with previous reports, head movement onset had to precede the onset of a brief sound by about 73 ms in order for the stimuli to be perceived as simultaneous. Head movements paired with long square sounds (~100 ms) were not significantly different than brief sounds. Surprisingly, head movements paired with long raised-cosine sound (~115 ms) had to be presented even earlier than brief stimuli. This additional lead time could not be accounted for by differences in the comparison stimulus characteristics (temporal envelope duration and shape). Rather, differences between sound conditions were found to be attributable to variability in the time for head movement to reach peak velocity: the head moved faster when paired with a brief sound. The persistent lead time required for vestibular stimulation provides further evidence that the perceptual latency of vestibular stimulation is greater than the other senses.

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Head movement properties. Average peak displacement (a), average duration (b), median peak acceleration (c), average peak velocity (d), average time to reach peak acceleration (e) and median time to reach peak velocity (f) for each head movement–sound pairing. Dashed lines in a and b represent the target displacement and durations from training, respectively (see “General methods”). Error bars in a, b, d and e are ±1 SEM; 25th and 75th percentiles in c and f. *p < 0.05
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Fig4: Head movement properties. Average peak displacement (a), average duration (b), median peak acceleration (c), average peak velocity (d), average time to reach peak acceleration (e) and median time to reach peak velocity (f) for each head movement–sound pairing. Dashed lines in a and b represent the target displacement and durations from training, respectively (see “General methods”). Error bars in a, b, d and e are ±1 SEM; 25th and 75th percentiles in c and f. *p < 0.05

Mentions: To determine whether variability in the active head movements could explain this additional lead time, we analyzed the head movement properties in each condition from experiment 1 by first calculating the average head movement properties within each individual and then grouping them. On average, active head movement displacement was 50° (SD: 19.9), with a peak velocity of 149°/s (SD: 71.3) and peak acceleration of 941°/s/s (SD: 568.5). All head movement displacements were significantly greater (one-sample t-tests, all p < 0.001) than the 20° displacement to which participants were trained (Fig. 4a); however, average head movement duration was not significantly different from 1,400 ms for all sound conditions (all p > 0.05; Fig. 4b). Significant effects of sound type on the duration (F(2,28) = 6.4, p = 0.005; Fig. 4a) and displacement (F(2,28) = 7.5, p = 0.002; Fig. 4b) of head movement were found. Pairwise comparison tests confirmed that this was driven primarily by the brief square sound; head movement in this condition was significantly shorter in duration compared to long square sound (p < 0.05) and shorter in displacement compared to the other sound conditions (all p < 0.05). However, no significant effect of sound type was found on head movement peak acceleration (χ(2)2 = 2.8; p = 0.247; Fig. 4c) or velocity (F(2,28) = 0.2, p = 0.856; Fig. 4d)—which is more relevant for information pertaining to head movement onset.Fig. 4


Persistent perceptual delay for head movement onset relative to auditory stimuli of different durations and rise times.

Barnett-Cowan M, Raeder SM, Bülthoff HH - Exp Brain Res (2012)

Head movement properties. Average peak displacement (a), average duration (b), median peak acceleration (c), average peak velocity (d), average time to reach peak acceleration (e) and median time to reach peak velocity (f) for each head movement–sound pairing. Dashed lines in a and b represent the target displacement and durations from training, respectively (see “General methods”). Error bars in a, b, d and e are ±1 SEM; 25th and 75th percentiles in c and f. *p < 0.05
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Fig4: Head movement properties. Average peak displacement (a), average duration (b), median peak acceleration (c), average peak velocity (d), average time to reach peak acceleration (e) and median time to reach peak velocity (f) for each head movement–sound pairing. Dashed lines in a and b represent the target displacement and durations from training, respectively (see “General methods”). Error bars in a, b, d and e are ±1 SEM; 25th and 75th percentiles in c and f. *p < 0.05
Mentions: To determine whether variability in the active head movements could explain this additional lead time, we analyzed the head movement properties in each condition from experiment 1 by first calculating the average head movement properties within each individual and then grouping them. On average, active head movement displacement was 50° (SD: 19.9), with a peak velocity of 149°/s (SD: 71.3) and peak acceleration of 941°/s/s (SD: 568.5). All head movement displacements were significantly greater (one-sample t-tests, all p < 0.001) than the 20° displacement to which participants were trained (Fig. 4a); however, average head movement duration was not significantly different from 1,400 ms for all sound conditions (all p > 0.05; Fig. 4b). Significant effects of sound type on the duration (F(2,28) = 6.4, p = 0.005; Fig. 4a) and displacement (F(2,28) = 7.5, p = 0.002; Fig. 4b) of head movement were found. Pairwise comparison tests confirmed that this was driven primarily by the brief square sound; head movement in this condition was significantly shorter in duration compared to long square sound (p < 0.05) and shorter in displacement compared to the other sound conditions (all p < 0.05). However, no significant effect of sound type was found on head movement peak acceleration (χ(2)2 = 2.8; p = 0.247; Fig. 4c) or velocity (F(2,28) = 0.2, p = 0.856; Fig. 4d)—which is more relevant for information pertaining to head movement onset.Fig. 4

Bottom Line: It has been recently reported, however, that despite having similar transduction latencies, vestibular stimuli are perceived significantly later than auditory stimuli when simultaneously generated.Head movements paired with long square sounds (~100 ms) were not significantly different than brief sounds.Rather, differences between sound conditions were found to be attributable to variability in the time for head movement to reach peak velocity: the head moved faster when paired with a brief sound.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Human Perception, Cognition and Action, Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Tübingen, Germany. mbarnettcowan@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The perception of simultaneity between auditory and vestibular information is crucially important for maintaining a coherent representation of the acoustic environment whenever the head moves. It has been recently reported, however, that despite having similar transduction latencies, vestibular stimuli are perceived significantly later than auditory stimuli when simultaneously generated. This suggests that perceptual latency of a head movement is longer than a co-occurring sound. However, these studies paired a vestibular stimulation of long duration (~1 s) and of a continuously changing temporal envelope with a brief (10-50 ms) sound pulse. In the present study, the stimuli were matched for temporal envelope duration and shape. Participants judged the temporal order of the two stimuli, the onset of an active head movement and the onset of brief (50 ms) or long (1,400 ms) sounds with a square- or raised-cosine-shaped envelope. Consistent with previous reports, head movement onset had to precede the onset of a brief sound by about 73 ms in order for the stimuli to be perceived as simultaneous. Head movements paired with long square sounds (~100 ms) were not significantly different than brief sounds. Surprisingly, head movements paired with long raised-cosine sound (~115 ms) had to be presented even earlier than brief stimuli. This additional lead time could not be accounted for by differences in the comparison stimulus characteristics (temporal envelope duration and shape). Rather, differences between sound conditions were found to be attributable to variability in the time for head movement to reach peak velocity: the head moved faster when paired with a brief sound. The persistent lead time required for vestibular stimulation provides further evidence that the perceptual latency of vestibular stimulation is greater than the other senses.

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