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Socio-Environmental Health Analysis in Nogales, Sonora, Mexico.

Norman LM, Caldeira F, Callegary J, Gray F, O' Rourke MK, Meranza V, Van Rijn S - Water Qual Expo Health (2012)

Bottom Line: Microbial contamination was significantly higher in the summer than in the winter in both colonias.Chloride was found to be significantly greater in Colosio (median 29.2 mg/L) although still below the US EPA's maximum contaminant levels of 250 mg/L.Ongoing binational collaboration can promote mechanisms to improve water quality in cities located in the US-Mexico border.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT
In Nogales, Sonora, Mexico, some neighborhoods, or colonias, have intermittent delivery of water through pipes from the city of Nogales's municipal water-delivery system while other areas lack piped water and rely on water delivered by truck or pipas. This research examined how lifestyles, water quality, and potential disease response, such as diarrhea, differs seasonally from a colonia with access to piped water as opposed to one using alternative water-delivery systems. Water samples were collected from taps or spigots at homes in two Nogales colonias. One colonia reflected high socio-environmental conditions where residents are supplied with municipal piped water (Colonia Lomas de Fatima); the second colonia reflected low socio-environmental conditions, lacking access to piped water and served by pipas (Colonia Luis Donaldo Colosio). A survey was developed and implemented to characterize perceptions of water quality, health impacts, and quality of life. Water samples were analyzed for microbial and inorganic water-quality parameters known to impact human health including, Escherichia coli (E. coli), total coliform bacteria, arsenic, and lead. A total of 21 households agreed to participate in the study (14 in Colosio and 7 in Fatima). In both colonias metal concentrations from water samples were all well below the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (US EPA's) maximum contaminant levels. E. coli concentrations exceeded the US EPA's drinking-water standard in Colosio but not Fatima. Total coliform bacteria were present in over 50 % of households in both colonias. Microbial contamination was significantly higher in the summer than in the winter in both colonias. Resulting analysis suggests that residents in colonias without piped water are at a greater risk of gastrointestinal illness from consumption of compromised drinking water. Our survey corroborated reports of gastrointestinal illness in the summer months but not in the winter. Chloride was found to be significantly greater in Colosio (median 29.2 mg/L) although still below the US EPA's maximum contaminant levels of 250 mg/L. Ongoing binational collaboration can promote mechanisms to improve water quality in cities located in the US-Mexico border.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Location map of Nogales, Sonora—display access to piped water Nogales—outlining Fatima and Colosio study areas
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Related In: Results  -  Collection


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Fig1: Location map of Nogales, Sonora—display access to piped water Nogales—outlining Fatima and Colosio study areas

Mentions: People become more susceptible to health problems when exposed to contaminated water, including infectious intestinal diseases. The impacts and risk perceptions of environmental health are not well understood in the developing world where waterborne disease is a major problem (Morua et al. 2011). Deficiencies in water management and inequities in water consumption in Mexico make the low-income groups particularly susceptible to disparities in water access (Brans 1997). The US–Mexico border zone stretches about 3,000 km from the Pacific Ocean to the Gulf of Mexico and 100 km north and south of the line as defined by the 1983 La Paz Agreement (US Environmental Protection Agency 1983), which includes land in four American states and six Mexican states. People living in colonias, unincorporated communities that are lacking in water or wastewater infrastructure along the US–Mexico border, often face a disproportionately high level of environmental problems that are magnified by poverty, lack of education, and migratory status (Good Neighbor Environmental Board 2004; Lara-Valencia et al. 2008; Norman 2008, 2010; Norman et al. 2008, 2009, 2010a, 2012; Ramos et al. 2001). Infrastructure (i.e., potable water, sewer, pavement and availability of electricity) is poorly developed among neighborhoods (colonias marginales) distant from the established core of Nogales, Sonora, Mexico (Fig. 1; Lara-Valencia et al. 2008; Norman et al. 2006, 2012; Sadalla et al. 2000; Sanchez 1995). Colonias marginales are communities established in Mexico when migrant squatters settle on unoccupied land (Norman et al. 2006; Sanchez 1995; Tolan 1990). Homes are constructed using available materials, without permits, inspections, nor official recognition by the city. Public health is negatively affected by exposure of children and others to water contaminated by sewage, garbage, and occasionally industrial discharges (Ingram et al. 1994; Lara-Valencia et al. 2010; Norman 2008). Fig. 1


Socio-Environmental Health Analysis in Nogales, Sonora, Mexico.

Norman LM, Caldeira F, Callegary J, Gray F, O' Rourke MK, Meranza V, Van Rijn S - Water Qual Expo Health (2012)

Location map of Nogales, Sonora—display access to piped water Nogales—outlining Fatima and Colosio study areas
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3375430&req=5

Fig1: Location map of Nogales, Sonora—display access to piped water Nogales—outlining Fatima and Colosio study areas
Mentions: People become more susceptible to health problems when exposed to contaminated water, including infectious intestinal diseases. The impacts and risk perceptions of environmental health are not well understood in the developing world where waterborne disease is a major problem (Morua et al. 2011). Deficiencies in water management and inequities in water consumption in Mexico make the low-income groups particularly susceptible to disparities in water access (Brans 1997). The US–Mexico border zone stretches about 3,000 km from the Pacific Ocean to the Gulf of Mexico and 100 km north and south of the line as defined by the 1983 La Paz Agreement (US Environmental Protection Agency 1983), which includes land in four American states and six Mexican states. People living in colonias, unincorporated communities that are lacking in water or wastewater infrastructure along the US–Mexico border, often face a disproportionately high level of environmental problems that are magnified by poverty, lack of education, and migratory status (Good Neighbor Environmental Board 2004; Lara-Valencia et al. 2008; Norman 2008, 2010; Norman et al. 2008, 2009, 2010a, 2012; Ramos et al. 2001). Infrastructure (i.e., potable water, sewer, pavement and availability of electricity) is poorly developed among neighborhoods (colonias marginales) distant from the established core of Nogales, Sonora, Mexico (Fig. 1; Lara-Valencia et al. 2008; Norman et al. 2006, 2012; Sadalla et al. 2000; Sanchez 1995). Colonias marginales are communities established in Mexico when migrant squatters settle on unoccupied land (Norman et al. 2006; Sanchez 1995; Tolan 1990). Homes are constructed using available materials, without permits, inspections, nor official recognition by the city. Public health is negatively affected by exposure of children and others to water contaminated by sewage, garbage, and occasionally industrial discharges (Ingram et al. 1994; Lara-Valencia et al. 2010; Norman 2008). Fig. 1

Bottom Line: Microbial contamination was significantly higher in the summer than in the winter in both colonias.Chloride was found to be significantly greater in Colosio (median 29.2 mg/L) although still below the US EPA's maximum contaminant levels of 250 mg/L.Ongoing binational collaboration can promote mechanisms to improve water quality in cities located in the US-Mexico border.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT
In Nogales, Sonora, Mexico, some neighborhoods, or colonias, have intermittent delivery of water through pipes from the city of Nogales's municipal water-delivery system while other areas lack piped water and rely on water delivered by truck or pipas. This research examined how lifestyles, water quality, and potential disease response, such as diarrhea, differs seasonally from a colonia with access to piped water as opposed to one using alternative water-delivery systems. Water samples were collected from taps or spigots at homes in two Nogales colonias. One colonia reflected high socio-environmental conditions where residents are supplied with municipal piped water (Colonia Lomas de Fatima); the second colonia reflected low socio-environmental conditions, lacking access to piped water and served by pipas (Colonia Luis Donaldo Colosio). A survey was developed and implemented to characterize perceptions of water quality, health impacts, and quality of life. Water samples were analyzed for microbial and inorganic water-quality parameters known to impact human health including, Escherichia coli (E. coli), total coliform bacteria, arsenic, and lead. A total of 21 households agreed to participate in the study (14 in Colosio and 7 in Fatima). In both colonias metal concentrations from water samples were all well below the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (US EPA's) maximum contaminant levels. E. coli concentrations exceeded the US EPA's drinking-water standard in Colosio but not Fatima. Total coliform bacteria were present in over 50 % of households in both colonias. Microbial contamination was significantly higher in the summer than in the winter in both colonias. Resulting analysis suggests that residents in colonias without piped water are at a greater risk of gastrointestinal illness from consumption of compromised drinking water. Our survey corroborated reports of gastrointestinal illness in the summer months but not in the winter. Chloride was found to be significantly greater in Colosio (median 29.2 mg/L) although still below the US EPA's maximum contaminant levels of 250 mg/L. Ongoing binational collaboration can promote mechanisms to improve water quality in cities located in the US-Mexico border.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus