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6-Gingerol Inhibits Growth of Colon Cancer Cell LoVo via Induction of G2/M Arrest.

Lin CB, Lin CC, Tsay GJ - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2012)

Bottom Line: Our results revealed that 6-gingerol treatment significantly reduced the cell viability of human colon cancer cell, LoVo, in a dose-dependent manner.Further flow cytometric analysis showed that 6-gingerol induced significant G2/M phase arrest and had slight influence on sub-G1 phase in LoVo cells.These findings indicate that exposure of 6-gingerol may induce intracellular ROS and upregulate p53, p27(Kip1), and p21(Cip1) levels leading to consequent decrease of CDK1, cyclin A, and cyclin B1 as result of cell cycle arrest in LoVo cells.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 402, Taiwan.

ABSTRACT
6-Gingerol, a natural component of ginger, has been widely reported to possess antiinflammatory and antitumorigenic activities. Despite its potential efficacy against cancer, the anti-tumor mechanisms of 6-gingerol are complicated and remain sketchy. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the anti-tumor effects of 6-gingerol on colon cancer cells. Our results revealed that 6-gingerol treatment significantly reduced the cell viability of human colon cancer cell, LoVo, in a dose-dependent manner. Further flow cytometric analysis showed that 6-gingerol induced significant G2/M phase arrest and had slight influence on sub-G1 phase in LoVo cells. Therefore, levels of cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), and their regulatory proteins involved in S-G2/M transition were investigated. Our findings revealed that levels of cyclin A, cyclin B1, and CDK1 were diminished; in contrast, levels of the negative cell cycle regulators p27(Kip1) and p21(Cip1) were increased in response to 6-gingerol treatment. In addition, 6-gingerol treatment elevated intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and phosphorylation level of p53. These findings indicate that exposure of 6-gingerol may induce intracellular ROS and upregulate p53, p27(Kip1), and p21(Cip1) levels leading to consequent decrease of CDK1, cyclin A, and cyclin B1 as result of cell cycle arrest in LoVo cells. It would be suggested that 6-gingerol should be beneficial to treatment of colon cancer.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Effects of 6-gingerol on p53 and intracellular ROS of LoVo cells. (a) Cells were treated with indicated concentration of 6-gingerol for 24 h or 48 h, and then the cell lysates were subjected to immunoblot for detection of p53. Protein levels were relatively quantitated by densitometric analysis using GAPDH as control. (b) Cells were treated with indicated concentration of 6-gingerol for 24 h, and the intracellular ROS was determined as described in the Section 2.
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fig6: Effects of 6-gingerol on p53 and intracellular ROS of LoVo cells. (a) Cells were treated with indicated concentration of 6-gingerol for 24 h or 48 h, and then the cell lysates were subjected to immunoblot for detection of p53. Protein levels were relatively quantitated by densitometric analysis using GAPDH as control. (b) Cells were treated with indicated concentration of 6-gingerol for 24 h, and the intracellular ROS was determined as described in the Section 2.

Mentions: Basing on that 6-gingerol treatment elevated negative cell cycle regulator p21Cip1, the upstream regulator of p21Cip1, p53 was further investigated. As shown in Figure 6(a), 6-gingerol treatments (24 h) elevated level of p53 up to 1.89-fold as compared to that of control. The trend of increase in p53 level was continuous in LoVo cells for further 24 h. These findings revealed that 6-gingerol treatments significantly induced the important cell cycle regulator p53 in LoVo cells.


6-Gingerol Inhibits Growth of Colon Cancer Cell LoVo via Induction of G2/M Arrest.

Lin CB, Lin CC, Tsay GJ - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2012)

Effects of 6-gingerol on p53 and intracellular ROS of LoVo cells. (a) Cells were treated with indicated concentration of 6-gingerol for 24 h or 48 h, and then the cell lysates were subjected to immunoblot for detection of p53. Protein levels were relatively quantitated by densitometric analysis using GAPDH as control. (b) Cells were treated with indicated concentration of 6-gingerol for 24 h, and the intracellular ROS was determined as described in the Section 2.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3375166&req=5

fig6: Effects of 6-gingerol on p53 and intracellular ROS of LoVo cells. (a) Cells were treated with indicated concentration of 6-gingerol for 24 h or 48 h, and then the cell lysates were subjected to immunoblot for detection of p53. Protein levels were relatively quantitated by densitometric analysis using GAPDH as control. (b) Cells were treated with indicated concentration of 6-gingerol for 24 h, and the intracellular ROS was determined as described in the Section 2.
Mentions: Basing on that 6-gingerol treatment elevated negative cell cycle regulator p21Cip1, the upstream regulator of p21Cip1, p53 was further investigated. As shown in Figure 6(a), 6-gingerol treatments (24 h) elevated level of p53 up to 1.89-fold as compared to that of control. The trend of increase in p53 level was continuous in LoVo cells for further 24 h. These findings revealed that 6-gingerol treatments significantly induced the important cell cycle regulator p53 in LoVo cells.

Bottom Line: Our results revealed that 6-gingerol treatment significantly reduced the cell viability of human colon cancer cell, LoVo, in a dose-dependent manner.Further flow cytometric analysis showed that 6-gingerol induced significant G2/M phase arrest and had slight influence on sub-G1 phase in LoVo cells.These findings indicate that exposure of 6-gingerol may induce intracellular ROS and upregulate p53, p27(Kip1), and p21(Cip1) levels leading to consequent decrease of CDK1, cyclin A, and cyclin B1 as result of cell cycle arrest in LoVo cells.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 402, Taiwan.

ABSTRACT
6-Gingerol, a natural component of ginger, has been widely reported to possess antiinflammatory and antitumorigenic activities. Despite its potential efficacy against cancer, the anti-tumor mechanisms of 6-gingerol are complicated and remain sketchy. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the anti-tumor effects of 6-gingerol on colon cancer cells. Our results revealed that 6-gingerol treatment significantly reduced the cell viability of human colon cancer cell, LoVo, in a dose-dependent manner. Further flow cytometric analysis showed that 6-gingerol induced significant G2/M phase arrest and had slight influence on sub-G1 phase in LoVo cells. Therefore, levels of cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), and their regulatory proteins involved in S-G2/M transition were investigated. Our findings revealed that levels of cyclin A, cyclin B1, and CDK1 were diminished; in contrast, levels of the negative cell cycle regulators p27(Kip1) and p21(Cip1) were increased in response to 6-gingerol treatment. In addition, 6-gingerol treatment elevated intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and phosphorylation level of p53. These findings indicate that exposure of 6-gingerol may induce intracellular ROS and upregulate p53, p27(Kip1), and p21(Cip1) levels leading to consequent decrease of CDK1, cyclin A, and cyclin B1 as result of cell cycle arrest in LoVo cells. It would be suggested that 6-gingerol should be beneficial to treatment of colon cancer.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus