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Isolation of Hox cluster genes from insects reveals an accelerated sequence evolution rate.

Hadrys H, Simon S, Kaune B, Schmitt O, Schöner A, Jakob W, Schierwater B - PLoS ONE (2012)

Bottom Line: Surprisingly though, no Hox genes have been isolated from 26 out of 35 insect orders yet, and the existing sequences derive mainly from only two orders (61% from Hymenoptera and 22% from Diptera).We have designed insect specific primers and isolated 37 new partial homeobox sequences of Hox cluster genes (lab, pb, Hox3, ftz, Antp, Scr, abd-a, Abd-B, Dfd, and Ubx) from six insect orders, which are crucial to insect phylogenetics.Furthermore, comparative distance analyses of homeobox sequences reveal a correlation between gene divergence rate and species radiation success with insects showing the highest rate of homeobox sequence evolution.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: ITZ, Division of Ecology and Evolution, Stiftung Tieraerztliche Hochschule Hannover, Hannover, Germany. heike.hadrys@ecolevol.de

ABSTRACT
Among gene families it is the Hox genes and among metazoan animals it is the insects (Hexapoda) that have attracted particular attention for studying the evolution of development. Surprisingly though, no Hox genes have been isolated from 26 out of 35 insect orders yet, and the existing sequences derive mainly from only two orders (61% from Hymenoptera and 22% from Diptera). We have designed insect specific primers and isolated 37 new partial homeobox sequences of Hox cluster genes (lab, pb, Hox3, ftz, Antp, Scr, abd-a, Abd-B, Dfd, and Ubx) from six insect orders, which are crucial to insect phylogenetics. These new gene sequences provide a first step towards comparative Hox gene studies in insects. Furthermore, comparative distance analyses of homeobox sequences reveal a correlation between gene divergence rate and species radiation success with insects showing the highest rate of homeobox sequence evolution.

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Alignment of 37 new hexapod Hox gene homeodomains.The newly isolated sequences of lab, pb, Dfd, Scr, ftz, Antp, Ubx, abd-A and abd-B from the dipluran Campodea fragilis (C.f.), the archaeognath Lepismachilis y-signata (L.y.), the odonates Ischnura elegans (I.e.) and Sympetrum sanguineum (S.s.), the ephemeropteran Baetis sp. (B.sp.), the plecopteran Nemoura cinerea (N.c.) and the dermapteran Forficula auricularia (F.a.) are aligned to their Drosophila melanogaster (D.m.) homolog. Dots indicate identical position.
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pone-0034682-g001: Alignment of 37 new hexapod Hox gene homeodomains.The newly isolated sequences of lab, pb, Dfd, Scr, ftz, Antp, Ubx, abd-A and abd-B from the dipluran Campodea fragilis (C.f.), the archaeognath Lepismachilis y-signata (L.y.), the odonates Ischnura elegans (I.e.) and Sympetrum sanguineum (S.s.), the ephemeropteran Baetis sp. (B.sp.), the plecopteran Nemoura cinerea (N.c.) and the dermapteran Forficula auricularia (F.a.) are aligned to their Drosophila melanogaster (D.m.) homolog. Dots indicate identical position.

Mentions: In this study we have isolated the first homeobox sequences of Hox cluster genes from six insect orders: Diplura (lab, Dfd, Scr, Antp, ftz, abd-A, Abd-B), Archaeognatha (Dfd, Scr, Antp, Ubx, abd-A, Abd-B), Ephemeroptera (Dfd, Scr, Antp, Ubx, abd-A, Abd-B), Odonata (lab, pb, Hox3, Dfd, Scr, Antp, Ubx, abd-A, Abd-B), Plecoptera (Dfd, Scr, Antp, ftz, Ubx, Abd-B), and Dermaptera (Dfd, Scr) (amino acid alignments are shown in Fig. 1). These 37 new sequences (Table S1) fill in crucial gaps both at the base of insects as well as at the base of Pterygota (Table 2). The new data raise the number of insect orders with reported Hox cluster gene sequences from 8 to 14 and the number of known gene sequences in the matrix from 67 to 101. In these numbers we include sequences from the 8 Hox genes (lab, pb, Dfd, Scr, Antp, Ubx, abd-A, abd-B) as well as from the two homeotic genes, Hox3 (bicoid) and ftz, which are integrated in the insect Hox cluster (or clusters in the case of Diptera).


Isolation of Hox cluster genes from insects reveals an accelerated sequence evolution rate.

Hadrys H, Simon S, Kaune B, Schmitt O, Schöner A, Jakob W, Schierwater B - PLoS ONE (2012)

Alignment of 37 new hexapod Hox gene homeodomains.The newly isolated sequences of lab, pb, Dfd, Scr, ftz, Antp, Ubx, abd-A and abd-B from the dipluran Campodea fragilis (C.f.), the archaeognath Lepismachilis y-signata (L.y.), the odonates Ischnura elegans (I.e.) and Sympetrum sanguineum (S.s.), the ephemeropteran Baetis sp. (B.sp.), the plecopteran Nemoura cinerea (N.c.) and the dermapteran Forficula auricularia (F.a.) are aligned to their Drosophila melanogaster (D.m.) homolog. Dots indicate identical position.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3369913&req=5

pone-0034682-g001: Alignment of 37 new hexapod Hox gene homeodomains.The newly isolated sequences of lab, pb, Dfd, Scr, ftz, Antp, Ubx, abd-A and abd-B from the dipluran Campodea fragilis (C.f.), the archaeognath Lepismachilis y-signata (L.y.), the odonates Ischnura elegans (I.e.) and Sympetrum sanguineum (S.s.), the ephemeropteran Baetis sp. (B.sp.), the plecopteran Nemoura cinerea (N.c.) and the dermapteran Forficula auricularia (F.a.) are aligned to their Drosophila melanogaster (D.m.) homolog. Dots indicate identical position.
Mentions: In this study we have isolated the first homeobox sequences of Hox cluster genes from six insect orders: Diplura (lab, Dfd, Scr, Antp, ftz, abd-A, Abd-B), Archaeognatha (Dfd, Scr, Antp, Ubx, abd-A, Abd-B), Ephemeroptera (Dfd, Scr, Antp, Ubx, abd-A, Abd-B), Odonata (lab, pb, Hox3, Dfd, Scr, Antp, Ubx, abd-A, Abd-B), Plecoptera (Dfd, Scr, Antp, ftz, Ubx, Abd-B), and Dermaptera (Dfd, Scr) (amino acid alignments are shown in Fig. 1). These 37 new sequences (Table S1) fill in crucial gaps both at the base of insects as well as at the base of Pterygota (Table 2). The new data raise the number of insect orders with reported Hox cluster gene sequences from 8 to 14 and the number of known gene sequences in the matrix from 67 to 101. In these numbers we include sequences from the 8 Hox genes (lab, pb, Dfd, Scr, Antp, Ubx, abd-A, abd-B) as well as from the two homeotic genes, Hox3 (bicoid) and ftz, which are integrated in the insect Hox cluster (or clusters in the case of Diptera).

Bottom Line: Surprisingly though, no Hox genes have been isolated from 26 out of 35 insect orders yet, and the existing sequences derive mainly from only two orders (61% from Hymenoptera and 22% from Diptera).We have designed insect specific primers and isolated 37 new partial homeobox sequences of Hox cluster genes (lab, pb, Hox3, ftz, Antp, Scr, abd-a, Abd-B, Dfd, and Ubx) from six insect orders, which are crucial to insect phylogenetics.Furthermore, comparative distance analyses of homeobox sequences reveal a correlation between gene divergence rate and species radiation success with insects showing the highest rate of homeobox sequence evolution.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: ITZ, Division of Ecology and Evolution, Stiftung Tieraerztliche Hochschule Hannover, Hannover, Germany. heike.hadrys@ecolevol.de

ABSTRACT
Among gene families it is the Hox genes and among metazoan animals it is the insects (Hexapoda) that have attracted particular attention for studying the evolution of development. Surprisingly though, no Hox genes have been isolated from 26 out of 35 insect orders yet, and the existing sequences derive mainly from only two orders (61% from Hymenoptera and 22% from Diptera). We have designed insect specific primers and isolated 37 new partial homeobox sequences of Hox cluster genes (lab, pb, Hox3, ftz, Antp, Scr, abd-a, Abd-B, Dfd, and Ubx) from six insect orders, which are crucial to insect phylogenetics. These new gene sequences provide a first step towards comparative Hox gene studies in insects. Furthermore, comparative distance analyses of homeobox sequences reveal a correlation between gene divergence rate and species radiation success with insects showing the highest rate of homeobox sequence evolution.

Show MeSH