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Insecticide resistance mechanisms in the green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) I: A transcriptomic survey.

Silva AX, Jander G, Samaniego H, Ramsey JS, Figueroa CC - PLoS ONE (2012)

Bottom Line: Insecticide resistance is one of the best examples of rapid micro-evolution found in nature.Since the development of the first synthetic insecticide in 1939, humans have invested considerable effort to stay ahead of resistance phenotypes that repeatedly develop in insects.This study suggests strongly that insecticide resistance in M. persicae is more complex that has been described, with the participation of a broad array of resistance mechanisms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Instituto de Ciencias Ambientales y Evolutivas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile.

ABSTRACT

Background: Insecticide resistance is one of the best examples of rapid micro-evolution found in nature. Since the development of the first synthetic insecticide in 1939, humans have invested considerable effort to stay ahead of resistance phenotypes that repeatedly develop in insects. Aphids are a group of insects that have become global pests in agriculture and frequently exhibit insecticide resistance. The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, has developed resistance to at least seventy different synthetic compounds, and different insecticide resistance mechanisms have been reported worldwide.

Methodology/principal findings: To further characterize this resistance, we analyzed genome-wide transcriptional responses in three genotypes of M. persicae, each exhibiting different resistance mechanisms, in response to an anti-cholinesterase insecticide. The sensitive genotype (exhibiting no resistance mechanism) responded to the insecticide by up-regulating 183 genes primarily ones related to energy metabolism, detoxifying enzymes, proteins of extracellular transport, peptidases and cuticular proteins. The second genotype (resistant through a kdr sodium channel mutation), up-regulated 17 genes coding for detoxifying enzymes, peptidase and cuticular proteins. Finally, a multiply resistant genotype (carrying kdr and a modified acetylcholinesterase), up-regulated only 7 genes, appears not to require induced insecticide detoxification, and instead down-regulated many genes.

Conclusions/significance: This study suggests strongly that insecticide resistance in M. persicae is more complex that has been described, with the participation of a broad array of resistance mechanisms. The sensitive genotype exhibited the highest transcriptional plasticity, accounting for the wide range of potential adaptations to insecticides that this species can evolve. In contrast, the multiply resistant genotype exhibited a low transcriptional plasticity, even for the expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in insecticide detoxification. Our results emphasize the value of microarray studies to search for regulated genes in insects, but also highlights the many ways those different genotypes can assemble resistant phenotypes depending on the environmental pressure.

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Molecular functions over-represented in the sensitive genotype (S) after an Enrichment Analysis.The bars show the percentage of contigs associated with each GO term. The dark gray show the percentage of contigs associated with each GO term considering the full microarray data set. Green bars show the percentage of contigs associated with each GO term but only in the up-regulated date set.
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pone-0036366-g005: Molecular functions over-represented in the sensitive genotype (S) after an Enrichment Analysis.The bars show the percentage of contigs associated with each GO term. The dark gray show the percentage of contigs associated with each GO term considering the full microarray data set. Green bars show the percentage of contigs associated with each GO term but only in the up-regulated date set.

Mentions: An enrichment analysis (EA) revealed that BP and MF were significantly over-represented among the up-regulated sequences in the genotype S with respect to all sequences in the microarray. The analysis within the BP category revealed that gluconeogenesis, small molecule catabolism, cellular response to glucose starvation, response to amino acid stimulus, among others, were significantly over-represented (Figure 4). The analysis within the MF category showed an over-representation of catalytic activity including peptidase, hydrolase, kinase, and lyase activities (Figure 5).


Insecticide resistance mechanisms in the green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) I: A transcriptomic survey.

Silva AX, Jander G, Samaniego H, Ramsey JS, Figueroa CC - PLoS ONE (2012)

Molecular functions over-represented in the sensitive genotype (S) after an Enrichment Analysis.The bars show the percentage of contigs associated with each GO term. The dark gray show the percentage of contigs associated with each GO term considering the full microarray data set. Green bars show the percentage of contigs associated with each GO term but only in the up-regulated date set.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3369866&req=5

pone-0036366-g005: Molecular functions over-represented in the sensitive genotype (S) after an Enrichment Analysis.The bars show the percentage of contigs associated with each GO term. The dark gray show the percentage of contigs associated with each GO term considering the full microarray data set. Green bars show the percentage of contigs associated with each GO term but only in the up-regulated date set.
Mentions: An enrichment analysis (EA) revealed that BP and MF were significantly over-represented among the up-regulated sequences in the genotype S with respect to all sequences in the microarray. The analysis within the BP category revealed that gluconeogenesis, small molecule catabolism, cellular response to glucose starvation, response to amino acid stimulus, among others, were significantly over-represented (Figure 4). The analysis within the MF category showed an over-representation of catalytic activity including peptidase, hydrolase, kinase, and lyase activities (Figure 5).

Bottom Line: Insecticide resistance is one of the best examples of rapid micro-evolution found in nature.Since the development of the first synthetic insecticide in 1939, humans have invested considerable effort to stay ahead of resistance phenotypes that repeatedly develop in insects.This study suggests strongly that insecticide resistance in M. persicae is more complex that has been described, with the participation of a broad array of resistance mechanisms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Instituto de Ciencias Ambientales y Evolutivas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile.

ABSTRACT

Background: Insecticide resistance is one of the best examples of rapid micro-evolution found in nature. Since the development of the first synthetic insecticide in 1939, humans have invested considerable effort to stay ahead of resistance phenotypes that repeatedly develop in insects. Aphids are a group of insects that have become global pests in agriculture and frequently exhibit insecticide resistance. The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, has developed resistance to at least seventy different synthetic compounds, and different insecticide resistance mechanisms have been reported worldwide.

Methodology/principal findings: To further characterize this resistance, we analyzed genome-wide transcriptional responses in three genotypes of M. persicae, each exhibiting different resistance mechanisms, in response to an anti-cholinesterase insecticide. The sensitive genotype (exhibiting no resistance mechanism) responded to the insecticide by up-regulating 183 genes primarily ones related to energy metabolism, detoxifying enzymes, proteins of extracellular transport, peptidases and cuticular proteins. The second genotype (resistant through a kdr sodium channel mutation), up-regulated 17 genes coding for detoxifying enzymes, peptidase and cuticular proteins. Finally, a multiply resistant genotype (carrying kdr and a modified acetylcholinesterase), up-regulated only 7 genes, appears not to require induced insecticide detoxification, and instead down-regulated many genes.

Conclusions/significance: This study suggests strongly that insecticide resistance in M. persicae is more complex that has been described, with the participation of a broad array of resistance mechanisms. The sensitive genotype exhibited the highest transcriptional plasticity, accounting for the wide range of potential adaptations to insecticides that this species can evolve. In contrast, the multiply resistant genotype exhibited a low transcriptional plasticity, even for the expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in insecticide detoxification. Our results emphasize the value of microarray studies to search for regulated genes in insects, but also highlights the many ways those different genotypes can assemble resistant phenotypes depending on the environmental pressure.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus