Limits...
Influence of socioeconomic status trajectories on innate immune responsiveness in children.

Azad MB, Lissitsyn Y, Miller GE, Becker AB, HayGlass KT, Kozyrskyj AL - PLoS ONE (2012)

Bottom Line: SES was inversely associated with innate immune responsiveness (p=0.003), with persistently low-SES children exhibiting responses more than twice as intense as their high-SES counterparts.Low-SES effects were strongest among overweight children (p<0.01).These results implicate differential immune activation in the association between SES and clinical outcomes, and broadly imply that SES interventions during childhood could limit or reverse the damaging biological effects of exposure to poverty during the preschool years.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Women and Children's Health Research Institute, Department of Pediatrics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Lower socioeconomic status (SES) is consistently associated with poor health, yet little is known about the biological mechanisms underlying this inequality. In children, we examined the impact of early-life SES trajectories on the intensity of global innate immune activation, recognizing that excessive activation can be a precursor to inflammation and chronic disease.

Methods: Stimulated interleukin-6 production, a measure of immune responsiveness, was analyzed ex vivo for 267 Canadian schoolchildren from a 1995 birth cohort in Manitoba, Canada. Childhood SES trajectories were determined from parent-reported housing data using a longitudinal latent-class modeling technique. Multivariate regression was conducted with adjustment for potential confounders.

Results: SES was inversely associated with innate immune responsiveness (p=0.003), with persistently low-SES children exhibiting responses more than twice as intense as their high-SES counterparts. Despite initially lower SES, responses from children experiencing increasing SES trajectories throughout childhood were indistinguishable from high-SES children. Low-SES effects were strongest among overweight children (p<0.01). Independent of SES trajectories, immune responsiveness was increased in First Nations children (p<0.05) and urban children with atopic asthma (p<0.01).

Conclusions: These results implicate differential immune activation in the association between SES and clinical outcomes, and broadly imply that SES interventions during childhood could limit or reverse the damaging biological effects of exposure to poverty during the preschool years.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

IL-6 responses by SES trajectory group.IL-6 responses were measured in LPS-stimulated PBMC by ELISA; children were assigned to SES trajectory groups as depicted in Figure 1. Data points represent individual children; bars represent geometric means. Log-normalized values compared by ANOVA with post-testing for linear trend and multiple comparisons. ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; LPS, lipopolysachharide; PBMC, peripheral blood mononuclear cells; SES, socioeconomic status.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3369855&req=5

pone-0038669-g002: IL-6 responses by SES trajectory group.IL-6 responses were measured in LPS-stimulated PBMC by ELISA; children were assigned to SES trajectory groups as depicted in Figure 1. Data points represent individual children; bars represent geometric means. Log-normalized values compared by ANOVA with post-testing for linear trend and multiple comparisons. ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; LPS, lipopolysachharide; PBMC, peripheral blood mononuclear cells; SES, socioeconomic status.

Mentions: IL-6 responses were quantified in freshly isolated immune cells following stimulation with LPS, a widely-encountered environmental stimulus of innate immune activation. Responses ranged from 10 to 10,000 pg/ml (Figure 2) with individual variation <10%, indicating the stability of this measure. A clear trend of elevated immune activation was found with decreasing SES (p for trend = 0.003). Persistent low-SES was associated with the highest IL-6 responses (geometric mean, 1994 pg/ml), while persistent high-SES children exhibited responses less than half this intensity (787 pg/ml). These data clearly indicate the propensity of high-SES children to exhibit more controlled immune activation upon stimulation with a ubiquitous environmental stimulus.


Influence of socioeconomic status trajectories on innate immune responsiveness in children.

Azad MB, Lissitsyn Y, Miller GE, Becker AB, HayGlass KT, Kozyrskyj AL - PLoS ONE (2012)

IL-6 responses by SES trajectory group.IL-6 responses were measured in LPS-stimulated PBMC by ELISA; children were assigned to SES trajectory groups as depicted in Figure 1. Data points represent individual children; bars represent geometric means. Log-normalized values compared by ANOVA with post-testing for linear trend and multiple comparisons. ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; LPS, lipopolysachharide; PBMC, peripheral blood mononuclear cells; SES, socioeconomic status.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3369855&req=5

pone-0038669-g002: IL-6 responses by SES trajectory group.IL-6 responses were measured in LPS-stimulated PBMC by ELISA; children were assigned to SES trajectory groups as depicted in Figure 1. Data points represent individual children; bars represent geometric means. Log-normalized values compared by ANOVA with post-testing for linear trend and multiple comparisons. ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; LPS, lipopolysachharide; PBMC, peripheral blood mononuclear cells; SES, socioeconomic status.
Mentions: IL-6 responses were quantified in freshly isolated immune cells following stimulation with LPS, a widely-encountered environmental stimulus of innate immune activation. Responses ranged from 10 to 10,000 pg/ml (Figure 2) with individual variation <10%, indicating the stability of this measure. A clear trend of elevated immune activation was found with decreasing SES (p for trend = 0.003). Persistent low-SES was associated with the highest IL-6 responses (geometric mean, 1994 pg/ml), while persistent high-SES children exhibited responses less than half this intensity (787 pg/ml). These data clearly indicate the propensity of high-SES children to exhibit more controlled immune activation upon stimulation with a ubiquitous environmental stimulus.

Bottom Line: SES was inversely associated with innate immune responsiveness (p=0.003), with persistently low-SES children exhibiting responses more than twice as intense as their high-SES counterparts.Low-SES effects were strongest among overweight children (p<0.01).These results implicate differential immune activation in the association between SES and clinical outcomes, and broadly imply that SES interventions during childhood could limit or reverse the damaging biological effects of exposure to poverty during the preschool years.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Women and Children's Health Research Institute, Department of Pediatrics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Lower socioeconomic status (SES) is consistently associated with poor health, yet little is known about the biological mechanisms underlying this inequality. In children, we examined the impact of early-life SES trajectories on the intensity of global innate immune activation, recognizing that excessive activation can be a precursor to inflammation and chronic disease.

Methods: Stimulated interleukin-6 production, a measure of immune responsiveness, was analyzed ex vivo for 267 Canadian schoolchildren from a 1995 birth cohort in Manitoba, Canada. Childhood SES trajectories were determined from parent-reported housing data using a longitudinal latent-class modeling technique. Multivariate regression was conducted with adjustment for potential confounders.

Results: SES was inversely associated with innate immune responsiveness (p=0.003), with persistently low-SES children exhibiting responses more than twice as intense as their high-SES counterparts. Despite initially lower SES, responses from children experiencing increasing SES trajectories throughout childhood were indistinguishable from high-SES children. Low-SES effects were strongest among overweight children (p<0.01). Independent of SES trajectories, immune responsiveness was increased in First Nations children (p<0.05) and urban children with atopic asthma (p<0.01).

Conclusions: These results implicate differential immune activation in the association between SES and clinical outcomes, and broadly imply that SES interventions during childhood could limit or reverse the damaging biological effects of exposure to poverty during the preschool years.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus