Limits...
Influence of socioeconomic status trajectories on innate immune responsiveness in children.

Azad MB, Lissitsyn Y, Miller GE, Becker AB, HayGlass KT, Kozyrskyj AL - PLoS ONE (2012)

Bottom Line: SES was inversely associated with innate immune responsiveness (p=0.003), with persistently low-SES children exhibiting responses more than twice as intense as their high-SES counterparts.Low-SES effects were strongest among overweight children (p<0.01).These results implicate differential immune activation in the association between SES and clinical outcomes, and broadly imply that SES interventions during childhood could limit or reverse the damaging biological effects of exposure to poverty during the preschool years.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Women and Children's Health Research Institute, Department of Pediatrics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Lower socioeconomic status (SES) is consistently associated with poor health, yet little is known about the biological mechanisms underlying this inequality. In children, we examined the impact of early-life SES trajectories on the intensity of global innate immune activation, recognizing that excessive activation can be a precursor to inflammation and chronic disease.

Methods: Stimulated interleukin-6 production, a measure of immune responsiveness, was analyzed ex vivo for 267 Canadian schoolchildren from a 1995 birth cohort in Manitoba, Canada. Childhood SES trajectories were determined from parent-reported housing data using a longitudinal latent-class modeling technique. Multivariate regression was conducted with adjustment for potential confounders.

Results: SES was inversely associated with innate immune responsiveness (p=0.003), with persistently low-SES children exhibiting responses more than twice as intense as their high-SES counterparts. Despite initially lower SES, responses from children experiencing increasing SES trajectories throughout childhood were indistinguishable from high-SES children. Low-SES effects were strongest among overweight children (p<0.01). Independent of SES trajectories, immune responsiveness was increased in First Nations children (p<0.05) and urban children with atopic asthma (p<0.01).

Conclusions: These results implicate differential immune activation in the association between SES and clinical outcomes, and broadly imply that SES interventions during childhood could limit or reverse the damaging biological effects of exposure to poverty during the preschool years.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Childhood SES trajectories.SES trajectories were derived from parent-reported housing data (number of bedrooms in the family home, for each year of the child's life). Individual children were assigned to trajectory groups using a semiparametric, group-based statistical modeling strategy; the number of children in each group is shown. Plotted lines represent the average trajectory for each group. SES, socioeconomic status.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3369855&req=5

pone-0038669-g001: Childhood SES trajectories.SES trajectories were derived from parent-reported housing data (number of bedrooms in the family home, for each year of the child's life). Individual children were assigned to trajectory groups using a semiparametric, group-based statistical modeling strategy; the number of children in each group is shown. Plotted lines represent the average trajectory for each group. SES, socioeconomic status.

Mentions: SES trajectories were derived from parent-reported housing data. As described in “Methods”, individual children were assigned to trajectory groups using a group-based statistical modeling strategy. The Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) was −6096 for 3 groups, −5626 for 4 groups, and −5452 for 5 groups, demonstrating increasingly better fit with the addition of each trajectory group. To prevent small group size, we did not exceed a 5-group model. As shown in Figure 1, four of the five identified trajectories indicated stable SES throughout childhood (designated low, mid, mid-high, or high). The fifth “increasing SES” trajectory, where SES until age 4 was below the mid-SES group but improved to exceed the mid-high-SES group by age 9, represented a significant increase in SES from birth (p<0.001). The persistent mid-SES group was used as the reference group as it comprised the largest proportion of children (N = 119, 44.6%), thus representing the “average” childhood SES trajectory in this population-based cohort. The remaining children were classified as follows: 33 low-SES, 26 increasing-SES, 71 mid-high-SES, and 18 high-SES.


Influence of socioeconomic status trajectories on innate immune responsiveness in children.

Azad MB, Lissitsyn Y, Miller GE, Becker AB, HayGlass KT, Kozyrskyj AL - PLoS ONE (2012)

Childhood SES trajectories.SES trajectories were derived from parent-reported housing data (number of bedrooms in the family home, for each year of the child's life). Individual children were assigned to trajectory groups using a semiparametric, group-based statistical modeling strategy; the number of children in each group is shown. Plotted lines represent the average trajectory for each group. SES, socioeconomic status.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3369855&req=5

pone-0038669-g001: Childhood SES trajectories.SES trajectories were derived from parent-reported housing data (number of bedrooms in the family home, for each year of the child's life). Individual children were assigned to trajectory groups using a semiparametric, group-based statistical modeling strategy; the number of children in each group is shown. Plotted lines represent the average trajectory for each group. SES, socioeconomic status.
Mentions: SES trajectories were derived from parent-reported housing data. As described in “Methods”, individual children were assigned to trajectory groups using a group-based statistical modeling strategy. The Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) was −6096 for 3 groups, −5626 for 4 groups, and −5452 for 5 groups, demonstrating increasingly better fit with the addition of each trajectory group. To prevent small group size, we did not exceed a 5-group model. As shown in Figure 1, four of the five identified trajectories indicated stable SES throughout childhood (designated low, mid, mid-high, or high). The fifth “increasing SES” trajectory, where SES until age 4 was below the mid-SES group but improved to exceed the mid-high-SES group by age 9, represented a significant increase in SES from birth (p<0.001). The persistent mid-SES group was used as the reference group as it comprised the largest proportion of children (N = 119, 44.6%), thus representing the “average” childhood SES trajectory in this population-based cohort. The remaining children were classified as follows: 33 low-SES, 26 increasing-SES, 71 mid-high-SES, and 18 high-SES.

Bottom Line: SES was inversely associated with innate immune responsiveness (p=0.003), with persistently low-SES children exhibiting responses more than twice as intense as their high-SES counterparts.Low-SES effects were strongest among overweight children (p<0.01).These results implicate differential immune activation in the association between SES and clinical outcomes, and broadly imply that SES interventions during childhood could limit or reverse the damaging biological effects of exposure to poverty during the preschool years.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Women and Children's Health Research Institute, Department of Pediatrics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Lower socioeconomic status (SES) is consistently associated with poor health, yet little is known about the biological mechanisms underlying this inequality. In children, we examined the impact of early-life SES trajectories on the intensity of global innate immune activation, recognizing that excessive activation can be a precursor to inflammation and chronic disease.

Methods: Stimulated interleukin-6 production, a measure of immune responsiveness, was analyzed ex vivo for 267 Canadian schoolchildren from a 1995 birth cohort in Manitoba, Canada. Childhood SES trajectories were determined from parent-reported housing data using a longitudinal latent-class modeling technique. Multivariate regression was conducted with adjustment for potential confounders.

Results: SES was inversely associated with innate immune responsiveness (p=0.003), with persistently low-SES children exhibiting responses more than twice as intense as their high-SES counterparts. Despite initially lower SES, responses from children experiencing increasing SES trajectories throughout childhood were indistinguishable from high-SES children. Low-SES effects were strongest among overweight children (p<0.01). Independent of SES trajectories, immune responsiveness was increased in First Nations children (p<0.05) and urban children with atopic asthma (p<0.01).

Conclusions: These results implicate differential immune activation in the association between SES and clinical outcomes, and broadly imply that SES interventions during childhood could limit or reverse the damaging biological effects of exposure to poverty during the preschool years.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus