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Q fever and pneumonia in an area with a high livestock density: a large population-based study.

Smit LA, van der Sman-de Beer F, Opstal-van Winden AW, Hooiveld M, Beekhuizen J, Wouters IM, Yzermans J, Heederik D - PLoS ONE (2012)

Bottom Line: The association with 'other infectious disease' was particularly strong, with an OR [95%CI] of 12.03 [8.79-16.46] for the fourth quartile (>17,190 goats) compared with the first quartile (<2,251 goats).The presence of poultry within 1 km was associated with an increased incidence of pneumonia among adults (OR [95%CI] 1.25 [1.06-1.47]).A high density of goats in a densely populated region was associated with human Q fever.The use of GP records combined with individual exposure estimates using a Geographic Information System is a powerful approach to assess environmental health risks.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division Environmental Epidemiology, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands. L.A.Smit@uu.nl

ABSTRACT
Concerns about public health risks of intensive animal production in The Netherlands continue to rise, in particular related to outbreaks of infectious diseases. The aim was to investigate associations between the presence of farm animals around the home address and Q fever and pneumonia.Electronic medical record data for the year 2009 of all patients of 27 general practitioners (GPs) in a region with a high density of animal farms were used. Density of farm animals around the home address was calculated using a Geographic Information System. During the study period, a large Q fever outbreak occurred in this region. Associations between farm exposure variables and pneumonia or 'other infectious disease', the diagnosis code used by GPs for registration of Q fever, were analyzed in 22,406 children (0-17 y) and 70,142 adults (18-70 y), and adjusted for age and sex. In adults, clear exposure-response relationships between the number of goats within 5 km of the home address and pneumonia and 'other infectious disease' were observed. The association with 'other infectious disease' was particularly strong, with an OR [95%CI] of 12.03 [8.79-16.46] for the fourth quartile (>17,190 goats) compared with the first quartile (<2,251 goats). The presence of poultry within 1 km was associated with an increased incidence of pneumonia among adults (OR [95%CI] 1.25 [1.06-1.47]).A high density of goats in a densely populated region was associated with human Q fever. The use of GP records combined with individual exposure estimates using a Geographic Information System is a powerful approach to assess environmental health risks.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Study area: the eastern part of the province of Noord-Brabant and the northern part of the province of Limburg.Dots represent residential addresses of 92,548 study subjects. Squares represent farms holding a licence to keep livestock. Triangles represent goat farms.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection


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pone-0038843-g001: Study area: the eastern part of the province of Noord-Brabant and the northern part of the province of Limburg.Dots represent residential addresses of 92,548 study subjects. Squares represent farms holding a licence to keep livestock. Triangles represent goat farms.

Mentions: The precise coordinates of all animal farms in the study area, and the type and number of animals were obtained from the provincial database of mandatory environmental licences for keeping livestock in 2009. Patients' residential addresses were geocoded, and distances between the home address and all animal farms within a 1 km radius were calculated using a geographic information system (ArcGis 9.3.1, Esri, Redlands, CA). Binary variables indicating the presence of a specific type of farm animal within 1 km from the home address were created. In addition, all goat farms (farms keeping goats as the main type of animal, or other livestock farms with at least 50 goats) within 5 km from the home address were identified. The shortest distance between a goat farm and home address, and the total number of goats within 5 km were computed. Figure 1 shows a map of the study area, indicating the presence of livestock farms around subjects' homes. In total, there were 180 registered goat farms in this area with an average (permitted) number of 1,307 goats (sd 1,195).


Q fever and pneumonia in an area with a high livestock density: a large population-based study.

Smit LA, van der Sman-de Beer F, Opstal-van Winden AW, Hooiveld M, Beekhuizen J, Wouters IM, Yzermans J, Heederik D - PLoS ONE (2012)

Study area: the eastern part of the province of Noord-Brabant and the northern part of the province of Limburg.Dots represent residential addresses of 92,548 study subjects. Squares represent farms holding a licence to keep livestock. Triangles represent goat farms.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3369851&req=5

pone-0038843-g001: Study area: the eastern part of the province of Noord-Brabant and the northern part of the province of Limburg.Dots represent residential addresses of 92,548 study subjects. Squares represent farms holding a licence to keep livestock. Triangles represent goat farms.
Mentions: The precise coordinates of all animal farms in the study area, and the type and number of animals were obtained from the provincial database of mandatory environmental licences for keeping livestock in 2009. Patients' residential addresses were geocoded, and distances between the home address and all animal farms within a 1 km radius were calculated using a geographic information system (ArcGis 9.3.1, Esri, Redlands, CA). Binary variables indicating the presence of a specific type of farm animal within 1 km from the home address were created. In addition, all goat farms (farms keeping goats as the main type of animal, or other livestock farms with at least 50 goats) within 5 km from the home address were identified. The shortest distance between a goat farm and home address, and the total number of goats within 5 km were computed. Figure 1 shows a map of the study area, indicating the presence of livestock farms around subjects' homes. In total, there were 180 registered goat farms in this area with an average (permitted) number of 1,307 goats (sd 1,195).

Bottom Line: The association with 'other infectious disease' was particularly strong, with an OR [95%CI] of 12.03 [8.79-16.46] for the fourth quartile (>17,190 goats) compared with the first quartile (<2,251 goats).The presence of poultry within 1 km was associated with an increased incidence of pneumonia among adults (OR [95%CI] 1.25 [1.06-1.47]).A high density of goats in a densely populated region was associated with human Q fever.The use of GP records combined with individual exposure estimates using a Geographic Information System is a powerful approach to assess environmental health risks.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division Environmental Epidemiology, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands. L.A.Smit@uu.nl

ABSTRACT
Concerns about public health risks of intensive animal production in The Netherlands continue to rise, in particular related to outbreaks of infectious diseases. The aim was to investigate associations between the presence of farm animals around the home address and Q fever and pneumonia.Electronic medical record data for the year 2009 of all patients of 27 general practitioners (GPs) in a region with a high density of animal farms were used. Density of farm animals around the home address was calculated using a Geographic Information System. During the study period, a large Q fever outbreak occurred in this region. Associations between farm exposure variables and pneumonia or 'other infectious disease', the diagnosis code used by GPs for registration of Q fever, were analyzed in 22,406 children (0-17 y) and 70,142 adults (18-70 y), and adjusted for age and sex. In adults, clear exposure-response relationships between the number of goats within 5 km of the home address and pneumonia and 'other infectious disease' were observed. The association with 'other infectious disease' was particularly strong, with an OR [95%CI] of 12.03 [8.79-16.46] for the fourth quartile (>17,190 goats) compared with the first quartile (<2,251 goats). The presence of poultry within 1 km was associated with an increased incidence of pneumonia among adults (OR [95%CI] 1.25 [1.06-1.47]).A high density of goats in a densely populated region was associated with human Q fever. The use of GP records combined with individual exposure estimates using a Geographic Information System is a powerful approach to assess environmental health risks.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus