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Traditional and molecular techniques for the study of emerging bacterial diseases: one laboratory's perspective.

Houpikian P, Raoult D - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2002)

Bottom Line: Identification of emerging bacterial pathogens generally results from a chain of events involving microscopy, serology, molecular tools, and culture.Because of the spectacular molecular techniques developed in the last decades, some authors think that these techniques will shortly supplant culture.Serology provided indirect evidence for causality.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Unité des Rickettsies, Faculté de Médecine de Marseille, France.

ABSTRACT
Identification of emerging bacterial pathogens generally results from a chain of events involving microscopy, serology, molecular tools, and culture. Because of the spectacular molecular techniques developed in the last decades, some authors think that these techniques will shortly supplant culture. The key steps that led to the discovery of emerging bacteria have been reviewed to determine the real contribution of each technique. Historically, microscopy has played a major role. Serology provided indirect evidence for causality. Isolation and culture were crucial, as all emerging bacteria have been grown on artificial media or cell lines or at least propagated in animals. With the use of broad-range polymerase chain reaction, some bacteria have been identified or detected in new clinical syndromes. Culture has irreplaceable advantages for studying emerging bacterial diseases, as it allows antigenic studies, antibiotic susceptibility testing, experimental models, and genetic studies to be carried out, and remains the ultimate goal of pathogen identification.

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Demonstration of Tropheryma whipplei by immuno-histochemistry in the lamina propria of the villous tips. Bacilli are revealed in foamy macrophage cytoplasm as red-brown deposits (polyclonal rabbit.
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Figure 3: Demonstration of Tropheryma whipplei by immuno-histochemistry in the lamina propria of the villous tips. Bacilli are revealed in foamy macrophage cytoplasm as red-brown deposits (polyclonal rabbit.

Mentions: Production of specific antibodies in experimental animal studies allowed immunochemical detection techniques to be developed. Direct immunofluorescence staining can be performed in smears in respiratory fluids of patients with pneumonia (29). Immunohistochemistry is useful for demonstrating disease causation, as it provides evidence for in situ association between microorganisms and histologic structures. With this technique, Tropheryma whipplei was detected in a patient’s mitral valve and later in intestinal mucosae (Figure 3) (2). Immunohistochemistry also suggested the role of M. fermentans in pulmonary infections (35). Immunologic techniques are dependent, however, on the availability of specific antibodies or antigens, which in most cases requires previous isolation of the agent; therefore, such techniques indirectly contribute to culture.


Traditional and molecular techniques for the study of emerging bacterial diseases: one laboratory's perspective.

Houpikian P, Raoult D - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2002)

Demonstration of Tropheryma whipplei by immuno-histochemistry in the lamina propria of the villous tips. Bacilli are revealed in foamy macrophage cytoplasm as red-brown deposits (polyclonal rabbit.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3369584&req=5

Figure 3: Demonstration of Tropheryma whipplei by immuno-histochemistry in the lamina propria of the villous tips. Bacilli are revealed in foamy macrophage cytoplasm as red-brown deposits (polyclonal rabbit.
Mentions: Production of specific antibodies in experimental animal studies allowed immunochemical detection techniques to be developed. Direct immunofluorescence staining can be performed in smears in respiratory fluids of patients with pneumonia (29). Immunohistochemistry is useful for demonstrating disease causation, as it provides evidence for in situ association between microorganisms and histologic structures. With this technique, Tropheryma whipplei was detected in a patient’s mitral valve and later in intestinal mucosae (Figure 3) (2). Immunohistochemistry also suggested the role of M. fermentans in pulmonary infections (35). Immunologic techniques are dependent, however, on the availability of specific antibodies or antigens, which in most cases requires previous isolation of the agent; therefore, such techniques indirectly contribute to culture.

Bottom Line: Identification of emerging bacterial pathogens generally results from a chain of events involving microscopy, serology, molecular tools, and culture.Because of the spectacular molecular techniques developed in the last decades, some authors think that these techniques will shortly supplant culture.Serology provided indirect evidence for causality.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Unité des Rickettsies, Faculté de Médecine de Marseille, France.

ABSTRACT
Identification of emerging bacterial pathogens generally results from a chain of events involving microscopy, serology, molecular tools, and culture. Because of the spectacular molecular techniques developed in the last decades, some authors think that these techniques will shortly supplant culture. The key steps that led to the discovery of emerging bacteria have been reviewed to determine the real contribution of each technique. Historically, microscopy has played a major role. Serology provided indirect evidence for causality. Isolation and culture were crucial, as all emerging bacteria have been grown on artificial media or cell lines or at least propagated in animals. With the use of broad-range polymerase chain reaction, some bacteria have been identified or detected in new clinical syndromes. Culture has irreplaceable advantages for studying emerging bacterial diseases, as it allows antigenic studies, antibiotic susceptibility testing, experimental models, and genetic studies to be carried out, and remains the ultimate goal of pathogen identification.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus