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Antimicrobial Constituents of Artemisia afra Jacq. ex Willd. against Periodontal Pathogens.

More G, Lall N, Hussein A, Tshikalange TE - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2012)

Bottom Line: Scopoletin had a strong transformation of the DPPH radical into its reduced form, with an IC(50) value of 1.24 μg/mL which was significant to that of vitamin C (1.22 μg/mL).Acacetin and betulinic acid also showed a smooth trend of non-toxic effects with IC(50) values of 35.44 and 30.96 μg/mL.The obtained results in this study confirm the use of A. afra in the treatment of microbial infections.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plant Science, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa.

ABSTRACT
The phytochemical investigation of an ethanol extract of Artemisia afra led to the isolation of six known compounds, acacetin (1), 12α,4α-dihydroxybishopsolicepolide (2), scopoletin (3), α-amyrin (4), phytol (5), and a pentacyclic triterpenoid betulinic acid (6). The compounds were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against Gram positive (Actinomyces naeslundii, Actinomyces israelii, and Streptococcus mutans), Gram negative bacteria (Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans previously known as Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans), and Candida albicans. The crude extract of A. afra inhibited the growth of all tested microbial species at concentration range of 1.6 mg/mL to 25 mg/mL. The compounds 1-6 also showed activity range at 1.0 mg/mL to 0.25 mg/mL. Three best compounds (scopoletin, betulinic acid, and acacetin) which showed good antimicrobial activity were selected for further studies. Cytotoxicity of extract and compounds was determined using the XTT cell proliferation kit. The antioxidant activity of the extract and compounds was done using the DPPH scavenging method. The extract showed good antioxidant activity with an IC(50) value of 22.2 μg/mL. Scopoletin had a strong transformation of the DPPH radical into its reduced form, with an IC(50) value of 1.24 μg/mL which was significant to that of vitamin C (1.22 μg/mL). Acacetin and betulinic acid exhibited a decreased scavenging activity with the IC(50) of 2.39 and 2.42 μg/mL, respectively. The extract and compounds showed moderate toxicity on McCoy fibroblast cell line and scopoletin was relatively nontoxic with an IC(50) value of 132.5 μg/mL. Acacetin and betulinic acid also showed a smooth trend of non-toxic effects with IC(50) values of 35.44 and 30.96 μg/mL. The obtained results in this study confirm the use of A. afra in the treatment of microbial infections.

No MeSH data available.


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The cytotoxicity effects of A. afra extract and three selected compounds on the growth of the McCoy fibroblast cells.
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fig3: The cytotoxicity effects of A. afra extract and three selected compounds on the growth of the McCoy fibroblast cells.

Mentions: The cytotoxicity effects of ethanol crude extract of A. afra and three selected compound on the growth of Fibroblast cells are shown in Figure 3 and Table 2. The extract as a mixture of different components showed to be nontoxic on lower concentrations of 6.12 and 3.06 μg/mL, with the cell viability of 120%. However, toxic effects were apparent at higher concentration range of 12.50 to 400 μg/mL, with the cell viability of 60 to 20%. Acacetin and betulinic acid also showed a smooth trend of nontoxic effects at lower concentrations and toxic at higher concentrations with IC50 values of 35.44 and 30.96 μg/mL respectively. The effect of acacetin on lung cancer (A549) cell proliferation was observed to have a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 9.46 μM [32]. Apoptotic activity of betulinic acid against murine melanoma B16 cell line was reported and it was discovered that betulinic acid induces apoptotic effects with an IC50 of 22.5 μg/mL [33]. Reports postulates that triterpenes with a carboxyl group at c-28 shows more cytotoxic activity against cancer cell lines [34–36] and induce apoptosis [37]. Unexpectedly, one out of three compounds tested, scopoletin was relatively nontoxic with an IC50 value of 132.5 μg/mL.


Antimicrobial Constituents of Artemisia afra Jacq. ex Willd. against Periodontal Pathogens.

More G, Lall N, Hussein A, Tshikalange TE - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2012)

The cytotoxicity effects of A. afra extract and three selected compounds on the growth of the McCoy fibroblast cells.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3369547&req=5

fig3: The cytotoxicity effects of A. afra extract and three selected compounds on the growth of the McCoy fibroblast cells.
Mentions: The cytotoxicity effects of ethanol crude extract of A. afra and three selected compound on the growth of Fibroblast cells are shown in Figure 3 and Table 2. The extract as a mixture of different components showed to be nontoxic on lower concentrations of 6.12 and 3.06 μg/mL, with the cell viability of 120%. However, toxic effects were apparent at higher concentration range of 12.50 to 400 μg/mL, with the cell viability of 60 to 20%. Acacetin and betulinic acid also showed a smooth trend of nontoxic effects at lower concentrations and toxic at higher concentrations with IC50 values of 35.44 and 30.96 μg/mL respectively. The effect of acacetin on lung cancer (A549) cell proliferation was observed to have a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 9.46 μM [32]. Apoptotic activity of betulinic acid against murine melanoma B16 cell line was reported and it was discovered that betulinic acid induces apoptotic effects with an IC50 of 22.5 μg/mL [33]. Reports postulates that triterpenes with a carboxyl group at c-28 shows more cytotoxic activity against cancer cell lines [34–36] and induce apoptosis [37]. Unexpectedly, one out of three compounds tested, scopoletin was relatively nontoxic with an IC50 value of 132.5 μg/mL.

Bottom Line: Scopoletin had a strong transformation of the DPPH radical into its reduced form, with an IC(50) value of 1.24 μg/mL which was significant to that of vitamin C (1.22 μg/mL).Acacetin and betulinic acid also showed a smooth trend of non-toxic effects with IC(50) values of 35.44 and 30.96 μg/mL.The obtained results in this study confirm the use of A. afra in the treatment of microbial infections.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plant Science, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa.

ABSTRACT
The phytochemical investigation of an ethanol extract of Artemisia afra led to the isolation of six known compounds, acacetin (1), 12α,4α-dihydroxybishopsolicepolide (2), scopoletin (3), α-amyrin (4), phytol (5), and a pentacyclic triterpenoid betulinic acid (6). The compounds were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against Gram positive (Actinomyces naeslundii, Actinomyces israelii, and Streptococcus mutans), Gram negative bacteria (Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans previously known as Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans), and Candida albicans. The crude extract of A. afra inhibited the growth of all tested microbial species at concentration range of 1.6 mg/mL to 25 mg/mL. The compounds 1-6 also showed activity range at 1.0 mg/mL to 0.25 mg/mL. Three best compounds (scopoletin, betulinic acid, and acacetin) which showed good antimicrobial activity were selected for further studies. Cytotoxicity of extract and compounds was determined using the XTT cell proliferation kit. The antioxidant activity of the extract and compounds was done using the DPPH scavenging method. The extract showed good antioxidant activity with an IC(50) value of 22.2 μg/mL. Scopoletin had a strong transformation of the DPPH radical into its reduced form, with an IC(50) value of 1.24 μg/mL which was significant to that of vitamin C (1.22 μg/mL). Acacetin and betulinic acid exhibited a decreased scavenging activity with the IC(50) of 2.39 and 2.42 μg/mL, respectively. The extract and compounds showed moderate toxicity on McCoy fibroblast cell line and scopoletin was relatively nontoxic with an IC(50) value of 132.5 μg/mL. Acacetin and betulinic acid also showed a smooth trend of non-toxic effects with IC(50) values of 35.44 and 30.96 μg/mL. The obtained results in this study confirm the use of A. afra in the treatment of microbial infections.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus