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Mechanism of Trypanosoma cruzi Placenta Invasion and Infection: The Use of Human Chorionic Villi Explants.

Fretes RE, Kemmerling U - J Trop Med (2012)

Bottom Line: Congenital Chagas disease, a neglected tropical disease, endemic in Latin America, is associated with premature labor and miscarriage.However, the exact mechanism of the placental infection remains unclear.In that context, the ex vivo infection with T. cruzi trypomastigotes of human placental chorionic villi constitutes an excellent tool for studying parasite infection strategies as well as possible local antiparasitic mechanisms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Nacional Córdoba, 5000 Cordoba, Argentina.

ABSTRACT
Congenital Chagas disease, a neglected tropical disease, endemic in Latin America, is associated with premature labor and miscarriage. During vertical transmission the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) crosses the placental barrier. However, the exact mechanism of the placental infection remains unclear. We review the congenital transmission of T. cruzi, particularly the role of possible local placental factors that contribute to the vertical transmission of the parasite. Additionally, we analyze the different methods available for studying the congenital transmission of the parasite. In that context, the ex vivo infection with T. cruzi trypomastigotes of human placental chorionic villi constitutes an excellent tool for studying parasite infection strategies as well as possible local antiparasitic mechanisms.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Estimation of T. cruzi contact with the placenta in infected mothers.
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fig2: Estimation of T. cruzi contact with the placenta in infected mothers.

Mentions: Placental infection: the ex vivo and in vitro infection of human chorionic villi explants from human term placenta with the parasite is an excellent and easy way to study the mechanism of cellular and tissue invasion mechanisms. The explants can be kept in culture for several days [46], where constituent cells and tissues are in a more physiological condition than their isolated counterparts in monolayer cell culture models. Another advantage of this model is that the cells retain physical contact with the basal lamina and continue to receive paracrine growth factor signals from the underlying villous stroma. In our laboratories, we have established the optimal conditions for the ex vivo infection of chorionic villi explants with T. cruzi [17, 18, 20, 21, 36–41, 47]. The coincubation of 105 or 106 trypomastigotes produces a reproducible infection of the chorionic villi [17]. This parasite's concentration may seem to be extremely high, but if we consider the amount of blood that circulates through the placenta every day, and then calculate the number of parasites that reaches the placenta, the parasite concentration recommended for ex vivo infection is not high. Therefore, if we consider that the cardiac output in women is 4250 mL/min, and that during pregnancy the circulating blood volume increases in 20% and the cardiac output in 40%. Then the cardiac output in pregnant women is 5950 mL/min. From this output, 10% reaches the pregnant uterus and 80% of this volume reaches the placenta. Taking into account all the data, a volume of 475 mL/minute of blood reaches the placenta [48]. Considering a parasitemia as low as 0,1 to 1 parasite/mL, a total of 68544 to 685440 parasites circulate through the placenta in 24 hours (Figure 2). On the other hand, in pregnant women with acute Chagas disease, Torrico et al. [11] have reported parasitemias over 40 parasites/mL; therefore, in this condition a total of 27 million parasites circulate in 24 hours in the placenta. If we consider all these data, our experimental conditions are not far from in vivo conditions.


Mechanism of Trypanosoma cruzi Placenta Invasion and Infection: The Use of Human Chorionic Villi Explants.

Fretes RE, Kemmerling U - J Trop Med (2012)

Estimation of T. cruzi contact with the placenta in infected mothers.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3369486&req=5

fig2: Estimation of T. cruzi contact with the placenta in infected mothers.
Mentions: Placental infection: the ex vivo and in vitro infection of human chorionic villi explants from human term placenta with the parasite is an excellent and easy way to study the mechanism of cellular and tissue invasion mechanisms. The explants can be kept in culture for several days [46], where constituent cells and tissues are in a more physiological condition than their isolated counterparts in monolayer cell culture models. Another advantage of this model is that the cells retain physical contact with the basal lamina and continue to receive paracrine growth factor signals from the underlying villous stroma. In our laboratories, we have established the optimal conditions for the ex vivo infection of chorionic villi explants with T. cruzi [17, 18, 20, 21, 36–41, 47]. The coincubation of 105 or 106 trypomastigotes produces a reproducible infection of the chorionic villi [17]. This parasite's concentration may seem to be extremely high, but if we consider the amount of blood that circulates through the placenta every day, and then calculate the number of parasites that reaches the placenta, the parasite concentration recommended for ex vivo infection is not high. Therefore, if we consider that the cardiac output in women is 4250 mL/min, and that during pregnancy the circulating blood volume increases in 20% and the cardiac output in 40%. Then the cardiac output in pregnant women is 5950 mL/min. From this output, 10% reaches the pregnant uterus and 80% of this volume reaches the placenta. Taking into account all the data, a volume of 475 mL/minute of blood reaches the placenta [48]. Considering a parasitemia as low as 0,1 to 1 parasite/mL, a total of 68544 to 685440 parasites circulate through the placenta in 24 hours (Figure 2). On the other hand, in pregnant women with acute Chagas disease, Torrico et al. [11] have reported parasitemias over 40 parasites/mL; therefore, in this condition a total of 27 million parasites circulate in 24 hours in the placenta. If we consider all these data, our experimental conditions are not far from in vivo conditions.

Bottom Line: Congenital Chagas disease, a neglected tropical disease, endemic in Latin America, is associated with premature labor and miscarriage.However, the exact mechanism of the placental infection remains unclear.In that context, the ex vivo infection with T. cruzi trypomastigotes of human placental chorionic villi constitutes an excellent tool for studying parasite infection strategies as well as possible local antiparasitic mechanisms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Nacional Córdoba, 5000 Cordoba, Argentina.

ABSTRACT
Congenital Chagas disease, a neglected tropical disease, endemic in Latin America, is associated with premature labor and miscarriage. During vertical transmission the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) crosses the placental barrier. However, the exact mechanism of the placental infection remains unclear. We review the congenital transmission of T. cruzi, particularly the role of possible local placental factors that contribute to the vertical transmission of the parasite. Additionally, we analyze the different methods available for studying the congenital transmission of the parasite. In that context, the ex vivo infection with T. cruzi trypomastigotes of human placental chorionic villi constitutes an excellent tool for studying parasite infection strategies as well as possible local antiparasitic mechanisms.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus