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Mechanism of Trypanosoma cruzi Placenta Invasion and Infection: The Use of Human Chorionic Villi Explants.

Fretes RE, Kemmerling U - J Trop Med (2012)

Bottom Line: Congenital Chagas disease, a neglected tropical disease, endemic in Latin America, is associated with premature labor and miscarriage.However, the exact mechanism of the placental infection remains unclear.In that context, the ex vivo infection with T. cruzi trypomastigotes of human placental chorionic villi constitutes an excellent tool for studying parasite infection strategies as well as possible local antiparasitic mechanisms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Nacional Córdoba, 5000 Cordoba, Argentina.

ABSTRACT
Congenital Chagas disease, a neglected tropical disease, endemic in Latin America, is associated with premature labor and miscarriage. During vertical transmission the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) crosses the placental barrier. However, the exact mechanism of the placental infection remains unclear. We review the congenital transmission of T. cruzi, particularly the role of possible local placental factors that contribute to the vertical transmission of the parasite. Additionally, we analyze the different methods available for studying the congenital transmission of the parasite. In that context, the ex vivo infection with T. cruzi trypomastigotes of human placental chorionic villi constitutes an excellent tool for studying parasite infection strategies as well as possible local antiparasitic mechanisms.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Electron micrograph of a chorionic villous human placenta. Picture depicts the intervillous space (1) and the placental barrier formed by the syncytiotrophoblast (2), a discontinuous cytotrophoblast (3), basal laminae (asterix), conective tissue, and fetal vessels (4).
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fig1: Electron micrograph of a chorionic villous human placenta. Picture depicts the intervillous space (1) and the placental barrier formed by the syncytiotrophoblast (2), a discontinuous cytotrophoblast (3), basal laminae (asterix), conective tissue, and fetal vessels (4).

Mentions: The placenta is the principal site for the exchange of nutrients and gases between the mother and fetus. This organ plays an important role in hormone, peptide, and steroid synthesis necessary for a successful pregnancy [34]. The human placenta is classified as a hemochorial villous placenta in which the free chorionic villi, formed by the trophoblast and the villous stroma, are the functional units. The trophoblast contacts maternal blood in the intervillous space, and it is separated by a basal lamina from the villous stroma, which is connective tissue containing the vascular endothelium, fibroblasts, and macrophages (Figure 1) [35]. Trophoblast, basal lamina, and villous stroma with the endothelium of fetal capillaries form the placental barrier that must be crossed by different pathogens, including T. cruzi, to infect the fetus during vertical transmission [16–22, 36–41].


Mechanism of Trypanosoma cruzi Placenta Invasion and Infection: The Use of Human Chorionic Villi Explants.

Fretes RE, Kemmerling U - J Trop Med (2012)

Electron micrograph of a chorionic villous human placenta. Picture depicts the intervillous space (1) and the placental barrier formed by the syncytiotrophoblast (2), a discontinuous cytotrophoblast (3), basal laminae (asterix), conective tissue, and fetal vessels (4).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3369486&req=5

fig1: Electron micrograph of a chorionic villous human placenta. Picture depicts the intervillous space (1) and the placental barrier formed by the syncytiotrophoblast (2), a discontinuous cytotrophoblast (3), basal laminae (asterix), conective tissue, and fetal vessels (4).
Mentions: The placenta is the principal site for the exchange of nutrients and gases between the mother and fetus. This organ plays an important role in hormone, peptide, and steroid synthesis necessary for a successful pregnancy [34]. The human placenta is classified as a hemochorial villous placenta in which the free chorionic villi, formed by the trophoblast and the villous stroma, are the functional units. The trophoblast contacts maternal blood in the intervillous space, and it is separated by a basal lamina from the villous stroma, which is connective tissue containing the vascular endothelium, fibroblasts, and macrophages (Figure 1) [35]. Trophoblast, basal lamina, and villous stroma with the endothelium of fetal capillaries form the placental barrier that must be crossed by different pathogens, including T. cruzi, to infect the fetus during vertical transmission [16–22, 36–41].

Bottom Line: Congenital Chagas disease, a neglected tropical disease, endemic in Latin America, is associated with premature labor and miscarriage.However, the exact mechanism of the placental infection remains unclear.In that context, the ex vivo infection with T. cruzi trypomastigotes of human placental chorionic villi constitutes an excellent tool for studying parasite infection strategies as well as possible local antiparasitic mechanisms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Nacional Córdoba, 5000 Cordoba, Argentina.

ABSTRACT
Congenital Chagas disease, a neglected tropical disease, endemic in Latin America, is associated with premature labor and miscarriage. During vertical transmission the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) crosses the placental barrier. However, the exact mechanism of the placental infection remains unclear. We review the congenital transmission of T. cruzi, particularly the role of possible local placental factors that contribute to the vertical transmission of the parasite. Additionally, we analyze the different methods available for studying the congenital transmission of the parasite. In that context, the ex vivo infection with T. cruzi trypomastigotes of human placental chorionic villi constitutes an excellent tool for studying parasite infection strategies as well as possible local antiparasitic mechanisms.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus