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Dynamic functional reorganizations and relationship with working memory performance in healthy aging.

Sala-Llonch R, Arenaza-Urquijo EM, Valls-Pedret C, Vidal-Piñeiro D, Bargalló N, Junqué C, Bartrés-Faz D - Front Hum Neurosci (2012)

Bottom Line: Moreover, resting-state studies have concluded that elders show disconnection or disruption of large-scale functional networks.We found that the disruption of resting-state networks in the elderly coexists with task-related overactivations of certain brain areas and with reorganizations within these functional networks.We concluded that the balanced and plastic reorganization of brain networks underlies successful cognitive aging.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departament de Psiquiatria i Psicobiologia Clinica, Facultat de Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona Barcelona, Spain.

ABSTRACT
In recent years, several theories have been proposed in attempts to identify the neural mechanisms underlying successful cognitive aging. Old subjects show increased neural activity during the performance of tasks, mainly in prefrontal areas, which is interpreted as a compensatory mechanism linked to functional brain efficiency. Moreover, resting-state studies have concluded that elders show disconnection or disruption of large-scale functional networks. We used functional MRI during resting-state and a verbal n-back task with different levels of memory load in a cohort of young and old healthy adults to identify patterns of networks associated with working memory and brain default mode. We found that the disruption of resting-state networks in the elderly coexists with task-related overactivations of certain brain areas and with reorganizations within these functional networks. Moreover, elders who were able to activate additional areas and to recruit a more bilateral frontal pattern within the task-related network achieved successful performance on the task. We concluded that the balanced and plastic reorganization of brain networks underlies successful cognitive aging. This observation allows the integration of several theories that have been proposed to date regarding the aging brain.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Results of the dual-regression analysis of task-related fMRI. Maps show voxel-wise group-comparisons thresholded at a FWE corrected significance level of p < 0.05. (A) Group differences in the DMN, and (B) Group differences in the right-FPN.
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Figure 6: Results of the dual-regression analysis of task-related fMRI. Maps show voxel-wise group-comparisons thresholded at a FWE corrected significance level of p < 0.05. (A) Group differences in the DMN, and (B) Group differences in the right-FPN.

Mentions: We used the dual-regression approach to explore differences in the selected networks during task-fMRI. High-HE showed decreased connectivity of the DMN with respect to YA (Figure 6A). However, in the right-FPN the same subjects had increased connectivity with respect to YA in several regions (Figure 6B), including the frontal pole, precentral gyrus, supplementary motor areas, anterior cingulate and paracingulate, insular cortex, and frontal orbital areas (BA6, 9, and 10). Finally, we found no differences in the connectivity of the left-FPN during task-fMRI.


Dynamic functional reorganizations and relationship with working memory performance in healthy aging.

Sala-Llonch R, Arenaza-Urquijo EM, Valls-Pedret C, Vidal-Piñeiro D, Bargalló N, Junqué C, Bartrés-Faz D - Front Hum Neurosci (2012)

Results of the dual-regression analysis of task-related fMRI. Maps show voxel-wise group-comparisons thresholded at a FWE corrected significance level of p < 0.05. (A) Group differences in the DMN, and (B) Group differences in the right-FPN.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3369258&req=5

Figure 6: Results of the dual-regression analysis of task-related fMRI. Maps show voxel-wise group-comparisons thresholded at a FWE corrected significance level of p < 0.05. (A) Group differences in the DMN, and (B) Group differences in the right-FPN.
Mentions: We used the dual-regression approach to explore differences in the selected networks during task-fMRI. High-HE showed decreased connectivity of the DMN with respect to YA (Figure 6A). However, in the right-FPN the same subjects had increased connectivity with respect to YA in several regions (Figure 6B), including the frontal pole, precentral gyrus, supplementary motor areas, anterior cingulate and paracingulate, insular cortex, and frontal orbital areas (BA6, 9, and 10). Finally, we found no differences in the connectivity of the left-FPN during task-fMRI.

Bottom Line: Moreover, resting-state studies have concluded that elders show disconnection or disruption of large-scale functional networks.We found that the disruption of resting-state networks in the elderly coexists with task-related overactivations of certain brain areas and with reorganizations within these functional networks.We concluded that the balanced and plastic reorganization of brain networks underlies successful cognitive aging.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departament de Psiquiatria i Psicobiologia Clinica, Facultat de Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona Barcelona, Spain.

ABSTRACT
In recent years, several theories have been proposed in attempts to identify the neural mechanisms underlying successful cognitive aging. Old subjects show increased neural activity during the performance of tasks, mainly in prefrontal areas, which is interpreted as a compensatory mechanism linked to functional brain efficiency. Moreover, resting-state studies have concluded that elders show disconnection or disruption of large-scale functional networks. We used functional MRI during resting-state and a verbal n-back task with different levels of memory load in a cohort of young and old healthy adults to identify patterns of networks associated with working memory and brain default mode. We found that the disruption of resting-state networks in the elderly coexists with task-related overactivations of certain brain areas and with reorganizations within these functional networks. Moreover, elders who were able to activate additional areas and to recruit a more bilateral frontal pattern within the task-related network achieved successful performance on the task. We concluded that the balanced and plastic reorganization of brain networks underlies successful cognitive aging. This observation allows the integration of several theories that have been proposed to date regarding the aging brain.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus