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Dynamic functional reorganizations and relationship with working memory performance in healthy aging.

Sala-Llonch R, Arenaza-Urquijo EM, Valls-Pedret C, Vidal-Piñeiro D, Bargalló N, Junqué C, Bartrés-Faz D - Front Hum Neurosci (2012)

Bottom Line: Moreover, resting-state studies have concluded that elders show disconnection or disruption of large-scale functional networks.We found that the disruption of resting-state networks in the elderly coexists with task-related overactivations of certain brain areas and with reorganizations within these functional networks.We concluded that the balanced and plastic reorganization of brain networks underlies successful cognitive aging.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departament de Psiquiatria i Psicobiologia Clinica, Facultat de Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona Barcelona, Spain.

ABSTRACT
In recent years, several theories have been proposed in attempts to identify the neural mechanisms underlying successful cognitive aging. Old subjects show increased neural activity during the performance of tasks, mainly in prefrontal areas, which is interpreted as a compensatory mechanism linked to functional brain efficiency. Moreover, resting-state studies have concluded that elders show disconnection or disruption of large-scale functional networks. We used functional MRI during resting-state and a verbal n-back task with different levels of memory load in a cohort of young and old healthy adults to identify patterns of networks associated with working memory and brain default mode. We found that the disruption of resting-state networks in the elderly coexists with task-related overactivations of certain brain areas and with reorganizations within these functional networks. Moreover, elders who were able to activate additional areas and to recruit a more bilateral frontal pattern within the task-related network achieved successful performance on the task. We concluded that the balanced and plastic reorganization of brain networks underlies successful cognitive aging. This observation allows the integration of several theories that have been proposed to date regarding the aging brain.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Identification of the functional networks of interest from the ICA analysis of resting-state fMRI. Spatial maps of the three selected networks. (A) DMN network, (B) right-FPN, and (C) left-FPN.
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Figure 3: Identification of the functional networks of interest from the ICA analysis of resting-state fMRI. Spatial maps of the three selected networks. (A) DMN network, (B) right-FPN, and (C) left-FPN.

Mentions: Spatial maps derived from the whole-sample ICA decomposition of resting-state fMRI data corresponding to the DMN, the right-FPN, and the left-FPN are shown in Figure 3. The component identified as the DMN (Figure 3A) comprised areas in the frontal pole, middle frontal gyrus, and paracingulate gyrus (BA9, 10), the precuneus and posterior cingulate gyrus (BA7, 18, 23, 30, 31), and bilaterally in the superior occipital and posterior parietal cortices (BA19, 39). The right- and left-lateralized FPN (Figures 3B,C) involved areas in the middle and inferior frontal cortices (BA8, 9, 10, and 46), the paracingulate and anterior cingulate (BA6, BA8, BA32) and right and left parietal lobes, including the supramarginal and angular gyri. Although the lateralized pattern differed between right- and left-FPN, there was a broad overlap between these two networks.


Dynamic functional reorganizations and relationship with working memory performance in healthy aging.

Sala-Llonch R, Arenaza-Urquijo EM, Valls-Pedret C, Vidal-Piñeiro D, Bargalló N, Junqué C, Bartrés-Faz D - Front Hum Neurosci (2012)

Identification of the functional networks of interest from the ICA analysis of resting-state fMRI. Spatial maps of the three selected networks. (A) DMN network, (B) right-FPN, and (C) left-FPN.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3369258&req=5

Figure 3: Identification of the functional networks of interest from the ICA analysis of resting-state fMRI. Spatial maps of the three selected networks. (A) DMN network, (B) right-FPN, and (C) left-FPN.
Mentions: Spatial maps derived from the whole-sample ICA decomposition of resting-state fMRI data corresponding to the DMN, the right-FPN, and the left-FPN are shown in Figure 3. The component identified as the DMN (Figure 3A) comprised areas in the frontal pole, middle frontal gyrus, and paracingulate gyrus (BA9, 10), the precuneus and posterior cingulate gyrus (BA7, 18, 23, 30, 31), and bilaterally in the superior occipital and posterior parietal cortices (BA19, 39). The right- and left-lateralized FPN (Figures 3B,C) involved areas in the middle and inferior frontal cortices (BA8, 9, 10, and 46), the paracingulate and anterior cingulate (BA6, BA8, BA32) and right and left parietal lobes, including the supramarginal and angular gyri. Although the lateralized pattern differed between right- and left-FPN, there was a broad overlap between these two networks.

Bottom Line: Moreover, resting-state studies have concluded that elders show disconnection or disruption of large-scale functional networks.We found that the disruption of resting-state networks in the elderly coexists with task-related overactivations of certain brain areas and with reorganizations within these functional networks.We concluded that the balanced and plastic reorganization of brain networks underlies successful cognitive aging.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departament de Psiquiatria i Psicobiologia Clinica, Facultat de Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona Barcelona, Spain.

ABSTRACT
In recent years, several theories have been proposed in attempts to identify the neural mechanisms underlying successful cognitive aging. Old subjects show increased neural activity during the performance of tasks, mainly in prefrontal areas, which is interpreted as a compensatory mechanism linked to functional brain efficiency. Moreover, resting-state studies have concluded that elders show disconnection or disruption of large-scale functional networks. We used functional MRI during resting-state and a verbal n-back task with different levels of memory load in a cohort of young and old healthy adults to identify patterns of networks associated with working memory and brain default mode. We found that the disruption of resting-state networks in the elderly coexists with task-related overactivations of certain brain areas and with reorganizations within these functional networks. Moreover, elders who were able to activate additional areas and to recruit a more bilateral frontal pattern within the task-related network achieved successful performance on the task. We concluded that the balanced and plastic reorganization of brain networks underlies successful cognitive aging. This observation allows the integration of several theories that have been proposed to date regarding the aging brain.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus