Limits...
Feedback Interactions between Trace Metal Nutrients and Phytoplankton in the Ocean.

Sunda WG - Front Microbiol (2012)

Bottom Line: Of these, iron is most limiting to phytoplankton growth and has the greatest effect on algal species diversity.Because of these effects, iron is thought to play a key role in regulating biological cycles of carbon and nitrogen in the ocean, including the biological transfer of carbon to the deep sea, the so-called biological CO(2) pump, which helps regulate atmospheric CO(2) and CO(2)-linked global warming.Other trace metal nutrients (zinc, cobalt, copper, and manganese) have lesser effects on productivity; but may exert an important influence on the species composition of algal communities because of large differences in metal requirements among species.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Ocean Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Beaufort, NC, USA.

ABSTRACT
In addition to control by major nutrient elements (nitrogen, phosphorus, and silicon) the productivity and species composition of marine phytoplankton communities are also regulated by a number of trace metal nutrients (iron, zinc, cobalt, manganese, copper, and cadmium). Of these, iron is most limiting to phytoplankton growth and has the greatest effect on algal species diversity. It also plays an important role in limiting di-nitrogen (N(2)) fixation rates, and thus is important in controlling ocean inventories of fixed nitrogen. Because of these effects, iron is thought to play a key role in regulating biological cycles of carbon and nitrogen in the ocean, including the biological transfer of carbon to the deep sea, the so-called biological CO(2) pump, which helps regulate atmospheric CO(2) and CO(2)-linked global warming. Other trace metal nutrients (zinc, cobalt, copper, and manganese) have lesser effects on productivity; but may exert an important influence on the species composition of algal communities because of large differences in metal requirements among species. The interactions between trace metals and ocean plankton are reciprocal: not only do the metals control the plankton, but the plankton regulate the distributions, chemical speciation, and cycling of these metals through cellular uptake and recycling processes, downward flux of biogenic particles, biological release of organic chelators, and mediation of redox reactions. This two way interaction has influenced not only the biology and chemistry of the modern ocean, but has had a profound influence on biogeochemistry of the ocean and earth system as a whole, and on the evolution of marine and terrestrial biology over geologic history.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Conceptual diagram of the mutual interactions between trace metal nutrients (Fe, Mn, Zn, Co, Cu, Mo, and Cd) and phytoplankton in the sea. In these interactions the chemistry of trace metal nutrients (their concentrations, chemical speciation, and redox cycling) regulate the productivity, species composition, and trophic interactions of marine phytoplankton communities. These communities in turn regulate the chemistry and cycling of the trace metals through cellular uptake and assimilation, vertical transport of biogenic particles (intact cells and fecal pellets), mediation of metal regeneration processes (by grazers, bacteria, and viruses), production of organic chelators, and biological mediation of metal redox cycling.
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Figure 1: Conceptual diagram of the mutual interactions between trace metal nutrients (Fe, Mn, Zn, Co, Cu, Mo, and Cd) and phytoplankton in the sea. In these interactions the chemistry of trace metal nutrients (their concentrations, chemical speciation, and redox cycling) regulate the productivity, species composition, and trophic interactions of marine phytoplankton communities. These communities in turn regulate the chemistry and cycling of the trace metals through cellular uptake and assimilation, vertical transport of biogenic particles (intact cells and fecal pellets), mediation of metal regeneration processes (by grazers, bacteria, and viruses), production of organic chelators, and biological mediation of metal redox cycling.

Mentions: In this review, I will discuss interactions between trace metal nutrients [iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), and molybdenum (Mo)] and phytoplankton in the ocean. These interactions involve not only the effect of the metals on the growth and species composition of phytoplankton communities, but also the profound effect of marine plankton on the distribution, speciation chemistry, and biological availability of these nutrient metals (Figure 1). There are many aspects to consider in these interactions, including (1) the distribution of metal nutrients in the ocean on various temporal and spatial scales; (2) the sources, sinks, and cycling of metals; (3) metal speciation and redox cycling, (4) the influence of these metals on phytoplankton metabolism and growth at different levels of biological organization (molecular, cellular, population, community, ecosystem, ocean/earth system), and (5) the influence of phytoplankton and the planktonic community as a whole on the chemistry and cycling of metal nutrients in the ocean.


Feedback Interactions between Trace Metal Nutrients and Phytoplankton in the Ocean.

Sunda WG - Front Microbiol (2012)

Conceptual diagram of the mutual interactions between trace metal nutrients (Fe, Mn, Zn, Co, Cu, Mo, and Cd) and phytoplankton in the sea. In these interactions the chemistry of trace metal nutrients (their concentrations, chemical speciation, and redox cycling) regulate the productivity, species composition, and trophic interactions of marine phytoplankton communities. These communities in turn regulate the chemistry and cycling of the trace metals through cellular uptake and assimilation, vertical transport of biogenic particles (intact cells and fecal pellets), mediation of metal regeneration processes (by grazers, bacteria, and viruses), production of organic chelators, and biological mediation of metal redox cycling.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3369199&req=5

Figure 1: Conceptual diagram of the mutual interactions between trace metal nutrients (Fe, Mn, Zn, Co, Cu, Mo, and Cd) and phytoplankton in the sea. In these interactions the chemistry of trace metal nutrients (their concentrations, chemical speciation, and redox cycling) regulate the productivity, species composition, and trophic interactions of marine phytoplankton communities. These communities in turn regulate the chemistry and cycling of the trace metals through cellular uptake and assimilation, vertical transport of biogenic particles (intact cells and fecal pellets), mediation of metal regeneration processes (by grazers, bacteria, and viruses), production of organic chelators, and biological mediation of metal redox cycling.
Mentions: In this review, I will discuss interactions between trace metal nutrients [iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), and molybdenum (Mo)] and phytoplankton in the ocean. These interactions involve not only the effect of the metals on the growth and species composition of phytoplankton communities, but also the profound effect of marine plankton on the distribution, speciation chemistry, and biological availability of these nutrient metals (Figure 1). There are many aspects to consider in these interactions, including (1) the distribution of metal nutrients in the ocean on various temporal and spatial scales; (2) the sources, sinks, and cycling of metals; (3) metal speciation and redox cycling, (4) the influence of these metals on phytoplankton metabolism and growth at different levels of biological organization (molecular, cellular, population, community, ecosystem, ocean/earth system), and (5) the influence of phytoplankton and the planktonic community as a whole on the chemistry and cycling of metal nutrients in the ocean.

Bottom Line: Of these, iron is most limiting to phytoplankton growth and has the greatest effect on algal species diversity.Because of these effects, iron is thought to play a key role in regulating biological cycles of carbon and nitrogen in the ocean, including the biological transfer of carbon to the deep sea, the so-called biological CO(2) pump, which helps regulate atmospheric CO(2) and CO(2)-linked global warming.Other trace metal nutrients (zinc, cobalt, copper, and manganese) have lesser effects on productivity; but may exert an important influence on the species composition of algal communities because of large differences in metal requirements among species.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Ocean Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Beaufort, NC, USA.

ABSTRACT
In addition to control by major nutrient elements (nitrogen, phosphorus, and silicon) the productivity and species composition of marine phytoplankton communities are also regulated by a number of trace metal nutrients (iron, zinc, cobalt, manganese, copper, and cadmium). Of these, iron is most limiting to phytoplankton growth and has the greatest effect on algal species diversity. It also plays an important role in limiting di-nitrogen (N(2)) fixation rates, and thus is important in controlling ocean inventories of fixed nitrogen. Because of these effects, iron is thought to play a key role in regulating biological cycles of carbon and nitrogen in the ocean, including the biological transfer of carbon to the deep sea, the so-called biological CO(2) pump, which helps regulate atmospheric CO(2) and CO(2)-linked global warming. Other trace metal nutrients (zinc, cobalt, copper, and manganese) have lesser effects on productivity; but may exert an important influence on the species composition of algal communities because of large differences in metal requirements among species. The interactions between trace metals and ocean plankton are reciprocal: not only do the metals control the plankton, but the plankton regulate the distributions, chemical speciation, and cycling of these metals through cellular uptake and recycling processes, downward flux of biogenic particles, biological release of organic chelators, and mediation of redox reactions. This two way interaction has influenced not only the biology and chemistry of the modern ocean, but has had a profound influence on biogeochemistry of the ocean and earth system as a whole, and on the evolution of marine and terrestrial biology over geologic history.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus