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An Insight into the Diverse Roles of Surfactant Proteins, SP-A and SP-D in Innate and Adaptive Immunity.

Nayak A, Dodagatta-Marri E, Tsolaki AG, Kishore U - Front Immunol (2012)

Bottom Line: These proteins bind to target ligands on pathogens, allergens, and apoptotic cells, via C-terminal homotrimeric carbohydrate recognition domains, while the collagen region brings about the effector functions via its interaction with cell surface receptors.SP-A and SP-D deal with various pathogens, using a range of innate immune mechanisms such as agglutination/aggregation, enhancement of phagocytosis, and killing mechanisms by phagocytic cells and direct growth inhibition.This review enumerates immunological properties of SP-A and SP-D inside and outside lungs and discusses their importance in human health and disease.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Infection, Immunity and Disease Mechanisms, School of Health Sciences and Social Care, Brunel University London, UK.

ABSTRACT
Surfactant proteins SP-A and SP-D are hydrophilic, collagen-containing calcium-dependent lectins, which appear to have a range of innate immune functions at pulmonary as well as extrapulmonary sites. These proteins bind to target ligands on pathogens, allergens, and apoptotic cells, via C-terminal homotrimeric carbohydrate recognition domains, while the collagen region brings about the effector functions via its interaction with cell surface receptors. SP-A and SP-D deal with various pathogens, using a range of innate immune mechanisms such as agglutination/aggregation, enhancement of phagocytosis, and killing mechanisms by phagocytic cells and direct growth inhibition. SP-A and SP-D have also been shown to be involved in the control of pulmonary inflammation including allergy and asthma. Emerging evidence suggest that SP-A and SP-D are capable of linking innate immunity with adaptive immunity that includes modulation of dendritic cell function and helper T cell polarization. This review enumerates immunological properties of SP-A and SP-D inside and outside lungs and discusses their importance in human health and disease.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Multiple functions of (A) SP-D and (B) SP-A in human health and disease.
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Figure 2: Multiple functions of (A) SP-D and (B) SP-A in human health and disease.

Mentions: SP-A and SP-D can bind various self and non-self ligands, mostly via CRDs on the target surface in a carbohydrate and calcium-dependent manner, while the collagen region can recruit and activate the immune cells for the clearance of pathogens and apoptotic/necrotic cells (Kishore et al., 2006) (Figure 2). In addition to anti-microbial activities, SP-A and SP-D also play an important role in the control of inflammation triggered by self, non-self and altered self cells and molecules. Thus, they have a pivotal role in the clearance of apoptotic and necrotic cells, dampening of allergic reactions, maintenance of pregnancy (by virtue of their presence in the amniotic fluid), and modulating dendritic cell (DC) and T cell properties (Figure 2). The major immune-related functions of SP-A and SP-D are being reviewed here.


An Insight into the Diverse Roles of Surfactant Proteins, SP-A and SP-D in Innate and Adaptive Immunity.

Nayak A, Dodagatta-Marri E, Tsolaki AG, Kishore U - Front Immunol (2012)

Multiple functions of (A) SP-D and (B) SP-A in human health and disease.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3369187&req=5

Figure 2: Multiple functions of (A) SP-D and (B) SP-A in human health and disease.
Mentions: SP-A and SP-D can bind various self and non-self ligands, mostly via CRDs on the target surface in a carbohydrate and calcium-dependent manner, while the collagen region can recruit and activate the immune cells for the clearance of pathogens and apoptotic/necrotic cells (Kishore et al., 2006) (Figure 2). In addition to anti-microbial activities, SP-A and SP-D also play an important role in the control of inflammation triggered by self, non-self and altered self cells and molecules. Thus, they have a pivotal role in the clearance of apoptotic and necrotic cells, dampening of allergic reactions, maintenance of pregnancy (by virtue of their presence in the amniotic fluid), and modulating dendritic cell (DC) and T cell properties (Figure 2). The major immune-related functions of SP-A and SP-D are being reviewed here.

Bottom Line: These proteins bind to target ligands on pathogens, allergens, and apoptotic cells, via C-terminal homotrimeric carbohydrate recognition domains, while the collagen region brings about the effector functions via its interaction with cell surface receptors.SP-A and SP-D deal with various pathogens, using a range of innate immune mechanisms such as agglutination/aggregation, enhancement of phagocytosis, and killing mechanisms by phagocytic cells and direct growth inhibition.This review enumerates immunological properties of SP-A and SP-D inside and outside lungs and discusses their importance in human health and disease.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Infection, Immunity and Disease Mechanisms, School of Health Sciences and Social Care, Brunel University London, UK.

ABSTRACT
Surfactant proteins SP-A and SP-D are hydrophilic, collagen-containing calcium-dependent lectins, which appear to have a range of innate immune functions at pulmonary as well as extrapulmonary sites. These proteins bind to target ligands on pathogens, allergens, and apoptotic cells, via C-terminal homotrimeric carbohydrate recognition domains, while the collagen region brings about the effector functions via its interaction with cell surface receptors. SP-A and SP-D deal with various pathogens, using a range of innate immune mechanisms such as agglutination/aggregation, enhancement of phagocytosis, and killing mechanisms by phagocytic cells and direct growth inhibition. SP-A and SP-D have also been shown to be involved in the control of pulmonary inflammation including allergy and asthma. Emerging evidence suggest that SP-A and SP-D are capable of linking innate immunity with adaptive immunity that includes modulation of dendritic cell function and helper T cell polarization. This review enumerates immunological properties of SP-A and SP-D inside and outside lungs and discusses their importance in human health and disease.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus