Limits...
Fetal MR in the evaluation of pulmonary and digestive system pathology.

Martin C, Darnell A, Escofet C, Duran C, Pérez V - Insights Imaging (2012)

Bottom Line: Congenital malformations of the thorax, abdomen, and gastrointestinal tract are common.As various organs can be affected, accurate location and morphological characterization are important for accurate diagnosis.We describe the normal appearance of fetal thoracic, abdominal, and gastrointestinal structures on MRI, and we discuss the most common anomalies involving these structures and the role of MRI in their study. • To learn about the normal anatomy of the fetal chest, abdomen, and GI tract on MRI. • To recognize the MR appearance of congenital anomalies of the lungs and the digestive system. • To understand the value of MRI when compared to US in assessing fetal anomalies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Radiology Department, UDIAT CD, Institut Universitari Parc Taulí-UAB, Sabadell, Spain.

ABSTRACT

Background: Prenatal awareness of an anomaly ensures better management of the pregnant patient, enables medical teams and parents to prepare for the delivery, and is very useful for making decisions about postnatal treatment. Congenital malformations of the thorax, abdomen, and gastrointestinal tract are common. As various organs can be affected, accurate location and morphological characterization are important for accurate diagnosis.

Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enables excellent discrimination among tissues, making it a useful adjunct to ultrasonography (US) in the study of fetal morphology and pathology.

Results: MRI is most useful when US has detected or suspected anomalies, and more anomalies are detected when MRI and US findings are assessed together.

Conclusion: We describe the normal appearance of fetal thoracic, abdominal, and gastrointestinal structures on MRI, and we discuss the most common anomalies involving these structures and the role of MRI in their study.

Teaching points: • To learn about the normal anatomy of the fetal chest, abdomen, and GI tract on MRI. • To recognize the MR appearance of congenital anomalies of the lungs and the digestive system. • To understand the value of MRI when compared to US in assessing fetal anomalies.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Ovarian cyst. Fetus at 36 weeks’ gestation. a Fetal coronal and b axial single-shot fast spin-echo MR images showing a rounded hyperintense structure (arrow) occupying a large part of the left hemiabdomen, with fluid-fluid level in its interior (arrowheads in b). c CT at 4 months of age: the lesion is now located on the right side and shows calcification of the wall (arrow). US follow-up shows complete disappearance of the cyst and also of the right ovary
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3369121&req=5

Fig16: Ovarian cyst. Fetus at 36 weeks’ gestation. a Fetal coronal and b axial single-shot fast spin-echo MR images showing a rounded hyperintense structure (arrow) occupying a large part of the left hemiabdomen, with fluid-fluid level in its interior (arrowheads in b). c CT at 4 months of age: the lesion is now located on the right side and shows calcification of the wall (arrow). US follow-up shows complete disappearance of the cyst and also of the right ovary

Mentions: T1-weighted sequences can be useful for differentiating these anomalies from dilated intestinal loops. They can be difficult to differentiate prenatally from other abdominal cysts like mesenteric cyst, choledochal cyst, and specially ovarian cysts. Ovarian cysts are common during the prenatal period; they are usually detected in the third trimester of pregnancy [26]. Most are unilateral although they can be bilateral. Overstimulation of the ovaries by placental and maternal hormones seems to play an important role in their formation. In the fetal period, they may be simple cysts or they can become complicated with torsion and bleeding. On MRI, simple cysts are seen as an intraabdominal cystic structure that is hyperintense on T2-weighted sequences and hypointense on T1-weighted sequences. When complicated by torsion and/or bleeding, the signal intensity on T2-weighted sequences is lower, and fluid-fluid levels can be detected within the cyst due to hemorrhage or detritus (Fig. 16). Hypointense images in the wall of the cyst are occasionally seen in T2-weighted sequences due to dystrophic calcifications associated with infarction. Approximately 50% of ovarian cysts disappear during gestation or after birth [26].Fig. 16


Fetal MR in the evaluation of pulmonary and digestive system pathology.

Martin C, Darnell A, Escofet C, Duran C, Pérez V - Insights Imaging (2012)

Ovarian cyst. Fetus at 36 weeks’ gestation. a Fetal coronal and b axial single-shot fast spin-echo MR images showing a rounded hyperintense structure (arrow) occupying a large part of the left hemiabdomen, with fluid-fluid level in its interior (arrowheads in b). c CT at 4 months of age: the lesion is now located on the right side and shows calcification of the wall (arrow). US follow-up shows complete disappearance of the cyst and also of the right ovary
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3369121&req=5

Fig16: Ovarian cyst. Fetus at 36 weeks’ gestation. a Fetal coronal and b axial single-shot fast spin-echo MR images showing a rounded hyperintense structure (arrow) occupying a large part of the left hemiabdomen, with fluid-fluid level in its interior (arrowheads in b). c CT at 4 months of age: the lesion is now located on the right side and shows calcification of the wall (arrow). US follow-up shows complete disappearance of the cyst and also of the right ovary
Mentions: T1-weighted sequences can be useful for differentiating these anomalies from dilated intestinal loops. They can be difficult to differentiate prenatally from other abdominal cysts like mesenteric cyst, choledochal cyst, and specially ovarian cysts. Ovarian cysts are common during the prenatal period; they are usually detected in the third trimester of pregnancy [26]. Most are unilateral although they can be bilateral. Overstimulation of the ovaries by placental and maternal hormones seems to play an important role in their formation. In the fetal period, they may be simple cysts or they can become complicated with torsion and bleeding. On MRI, simple cysts are seen as an intraabdominal cystic structure that is hyperintense on T2-weighted sequences and hypointense on T1-weighted sequences. When complicated by torsion and/or bleeding, the signal intensity on T2-weighted sequences is lower, and fluid-fluid levels can be detected within the cyst due to hemorrhage or detritus (Fig. 16). Hypointense images in the wall of the cyst are occasionally seen in T2-weighted sequences due to dystrophic calcifications associated with infarction. Approximately 50% of ovarian cysts disappear during gestation or after birth [26].Fig. 16

Bottom Line: Congenital malformations of the thorax, abdomen, and gastrointestinal tract are common.As various organs can be affected, accurate location and morphological characterization are important for accurate diagnosis.We describe the normal appearance of fetal thoracic, abdominal, and gastrointestinal structures on MRI, and we discuss the most common anomalies involving these structures and the role of MRI in their study. • To learn about the normal anatomy of the fetal chest, abdomen, and GI tract on MRI. • To recognize the MR appearance of congenital anomalies of the lungs and the digestive system. • To understand the value of MRI when compared to US in assessing fetal anomalies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Radiology Department, UDIAT CD, Institut Universitari Parc Taulí-UAB, Sabadell, Spain.

ABSTRACT

Background: Prenatal awareness of an anomaly ensures better management of the pregnant patient, enables medical teams and parents to prepare for the delivery, and is very useful for making decisions about postnatal treatment. Congenital malformations of the thorax, abdomen, and gastrointestinal tract are common. As various organs can be affected, accurate location and morphological characterization are important for accurate diagnosis.

Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enables excellent discrimination among tissues, making it a useful adjunct to ultrasonography (US) in the study of fetal morphology and pathology.

Results: MRI is most useful when US has detected or suspected anomalies, and more anomalies are detected when MRI and US findings are assessed together.

Conclusion: We describe the normal appearance of fetal thoracic, abdominal, and gastrointestinal structures on MRI, and we discuss the most common anomalies involving these structures and the role of MRI in their study.

Teaching points: • To learn about the normal anatomy of the fetal chest, abdomen, and GI tract on MRI. • To recognize the MR appearance of congenital anomalies of the lungs and the digestive system. • To understand the value of MRI when compared to US in assessing fetal anomalies.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus