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A preliminary analysis of sleep-like states in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.

Frank MG, Waldrop RH, Dumoulin M, Aton S, Boal JG - PLoS ONE (2012)

Bottom Line: Rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep has only been observed in vertebrates.We find that cuttlefish exhibit frequent quiescent periods that are homeostatically regulated, satisfying two criteria for sleep.Our findings thus suggest that at least two different sleep-like states may exist in Sepia officinalis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Neuroscience, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America. mgf@mail.med.upenn.edu

ABSTRACT
Sleep has been observed in several invertebrate species, but its presence in marine invertebrates is relatively unexplored. Rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep has only been observed in vertebrates. We investigated whether the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis displays sleep-like states. We find that cuttlefish exhibit frequent quiescent periods that are homeostatically regulated, satisfying two criteria for sleep. In addition, cuttlefish transiently display a quiescent state with rapid eye movements, changes in body coloration and twitching of the arms, that is possibly analogous to REM sleep. Our findings thus suggest that at least two different sleep-like states may exist in Sepia officinalis.

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Dendrograms showing correlation coefficient distance (Ward Linkage) between body patterning components during the putative sleep-like state+CA in three adult/senescent cuttlefish (A: “C-check”; B: “Tiny”; C: “KY”).Dendrogram similarity scores range from 100% to −100% and are equivalent to Pearson or Spearman R values of “1” or “−1”.
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pone-0038125-g003: Dendrograms showing correlation coefficient distance (Ward Linkage) between body patterning components during the putative sleep-like state+CA in three adult/senescent cuttlefish (A: “C-check”; B: “Tiny”; C: “KY”).Dendrogram similarity scores range from 100% to −100% and are equivalent to Pearson or Spearman R values of “1” or “−1”.

Mentions: First, we used a dendrogram analyses to determine if the chromatophore patterns observed during this state were randomly generated. Dendrograms were created using correlation coefficient distance (Ward Linkage) showing the relatedness of chromatophore pattern components (as described in [20]) during the sleep-like state+CA(Figure 3). For example, the appearances of the white square, white head bar, and white arm triangle components were positively correlated in all three cuttlefish. These components also clustered in a previous analysis of the structure of cuttlefish body patterning [21]. Similarly, white neck spots, anterior head bar, anterior paired mantle spots, and posterior paired mantle spots usually occurred concurrently with one another in all three cuttlefish. In two of the three cuttlefish (C-Check and Tiny, Fig. 3a,b), the dark arms component occurred independently and was not correlated with any other component. With the third cuttlefish (KY, Fig. 3c), the dark arms component was associated with the presence of anterior paired mantle spots.


A preliminary analysis of sleep-like states in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.

Frank MG, Waldrop RH, Dumoulin M, Aton S, Boal JG - PLoS ONE (2012)

Dendrograms showing correlation coefficient distance (Ward Linkage) between body patterning components during the putative sleep-like state+CA in three adult/senescent cuttlefish (A: “C-check”; B: “Tiny”; C: “KY”).Dendrogram similarity scores range from 100% to −100% and are equivalent to Pearson or Spearman R values of “1” or “−1”.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3368927&req=5

pone-0038125-g003: Dendrograms showing correlation coefficient distance (Ward Linkage) between body patterning components during the putative sleep-like state+CA in three adult/senescent cuttlefish (A: “C-check”; B: “Tiny”; C: “KY”).Dendrogram similarity scores range from 100% to −100% and are equivalent to Pearson or Spearman R values of “1” or “−1”.
Mentions: First, we used a dendrogram analyses to determine if the chromatophore patterns observed during this state were randomly generated. Dendrograms were created using correlation coefficient distance (Ward Linkage) showing the relatedness of chromatophore pattern components (as described in [20]) during the sleep-like state+CA(Figure 3). For example, the appearances of the white square, white head bar, and white arm triangle components were positively correlated in all three cuttlefish. These components also clustered in a previous analysis of the structure of cuttlefish body patterning [21]. Similarly, white neck spots, anterior head bar, anterior paired mantle spots, and posterior paired mantle spots usually occurred concurrently with one another in all three cuttlefish. In two of the three cuttlefish (C-Check and Tiny, Fig. 3a,b), the dark arms component occurred independently and was not correlated with any other component. With the third cuttlefish (KY, Fig. 3c), the dark arms component was associated with the presence of anterior paired mantle spots.

Bottom Line: Rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep has only been observed in vertebrates.We find that cuttlefish exhibit frequent quiescent periods that are homeostatically regulated, satisfying two criteria for sleep.Our findings thus suggest that at least two different sleep-like states may exist in Sepia officinalis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Neuroscience, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America. mgf@mail.med.upenn.edu

ABSTRACT
Sleep has been observed in several invertebrate species, but its presence in marine invertebrates is relatively unexplored. Rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep has only been observed in vertebrates. We investigated whether the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis displays sleep-like states. We find that cuttlefish exhibit frequent quiescent periods that are homeostatically regulated, satisfying two criteria for sleep. In addition, cuttlefish transiently display a quiescent state with rapid eye movements, changes in body coloration and twitching of the arms, that is possibly analogous to REM sleep. Our findings thus suggest that at least two different sleep-like states may exist in Sepia officinalis.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus