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A preliminary analysis of sleep-like states in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.

Frank MG, Waldrop RH, Dumoulin M, Aton S, Boal JG - PLoS ONE (2012)

Bottom Line: Rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep has only been observed in vertebrates.We find that cuttlefish exhibit frequent quiescent periods that are homeostatically regulated, satisfying two criteria for sleep.Our findings thus suggest that at least two different sleep-like states may exist in Sepia officinalis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Neuroscience, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America. mgf@mail.med.upenn.edu

ABSTRACT
Sleep has been observed in several invertebrate species, but its presence in marine invertebrates is relatively unexplored. Rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep has only been observed in vertebrates. We investigated whether the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis displays sleep-like states. We find that cuttlefish exhibit frequent quiescent periods that are homeostatically regulated, satisfying two criteria for sleep. In addition, cuttlefish transiently display a quiescent state with rapid eye movements, changes in body coloration and twitching of the arms, that is possibly analogous to REM sleep. Our findings thus suggest that at least two different sleep-like states may exist in Sepia officinalis.

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A putative sleep-like state with chromatophore activity (CA) in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.Video still frames from a representative adult/senescent cuttlefish exhibiting changing chromatophore activity during quiescence. These 4 frames show 10 second, sequential frames beginning with quiescence (0:00) and 30 seconds of the sleep-like state+CA. The camera was positioned vertically over the animal, resting on the gravel bed; the front of the animal is pointed towards the upper right corner. Changes in chromatophore components include a darkening of the body and a disappearance of a white eye-bar (0:00–0:10), a lightening of the body, the appearance of a white square (0:10–0:20) and a subsequent disappearance of the white square (0:20–0:30). Body color components as defined as described by Hanlon et al [20]. See supporting information (Videos S1,S2) for representative videos of this sleep-like state+CA.
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pone-0038125-g002: A putative sleep-like state with chromatophore activity (CA) in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.Video still frames from a representative adult/senescent cuttlefish exhibiting changing chromatophore activity during quiescence. These 4 frames show 10 second, sequential frames beginning with quiescence (0:00) and 30 seconds of the sleep-like state+CA. The camera was positioned vertically over the animal, resting on the gravel bed; the front of the animal is pointed towards the upper right corner. Changes in chromatophore components include a darkening of the body and a disappearance of a white eye-bar (0:00–0:10), a lightening of the body, the appearance of a white square (0:10–0:20) and a subsequent disappearance of the white square (0:20–0:30). Body color components as defined as described by Hanlon et al [20]. See supporting information (Videos S1,S2) for representative videos of this sleep-like state+CA.

Mentions: All adult cuttlefish exhibited periods of quiescence where they rested against, or buried themselves in substrate on the bottom of the aquarium (Figure 1, Table 1). If provided enough substrate, the animals would completely bury themselves, leaving only their eyes above the gravel. This state was rapidly reversible as the animals quickly moved from the bottom and began swimming when disturbed. There was considerable variability in the amounts of rest across animals and on average there were no day-night differences in activity (Table 1). For three of the five cuttlefish, a state of complete quiescence was followed by a second, sleep-like state that contained phasic motor activity, as reported previously by Duntley et al., [13], [14], [15]. The eyes appeared to rapidly move beneath closed lids, chromatophore activity (CA) suddenly intensified, and the tips of the arms curled and twitched in a way not observed when the cuttlefish was awake (Figure 2 and Video S1,S2). This sleep-like state+CA lasted on average 135 seconds (st.dev. ±23 seconds) and only occurred once (in the night, when there was minimal illumination and disturbance) for each animal during the recording period.


A preliminary analysis of sleep-like states in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.

Frank MG, Waldrop RH, Dumoulin M, Aton S, Boal JG - PLoS ONE (2012)

A putative sleep-like state with chromatophore activity (CA) in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.Video still frames from a representative adult/senescent cuttlefish exhibiting changing chromatophore activity during quiescence. These 4 frames show 10 second, sequential frames beginning with quiescence (0:00) and 30 seconds of the sleep-like state+CA. The camera was positioned vertically over the animal, resting on the gravel bed; the front of the animal is pointed towards the upper right corner. Changes in chromatophore components include a darkening of the body and a disappearance of a white eye-bar (0:00–0:10), a lightening of the body, the appearance of a white square (0:10–0:20) and a subsequent disappearance of the white square (0:20–0:30). Body color components as defined as described by Hanlon et al [20]. See supporting information (Videos S1,S2) for representative videos of this sleep-like state+CA.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3368927&req=5

pone-0038125-g002: A putative sleep-like state with chromatophore activity (CA) in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.Video still frames from a representative adult/senescent cuttlefish exhibiting changing chromatophore activity during quiescence. These 4 frames show 10 second, sequential frames beginning with quiescence (0:00) and 30 seconds of the sleep-like state+CA. The camera was positioned vertically over the animal, resting on the gravel bed; the front of the animal is pointed towards the upper right corner. Changes in chromatophore components include a darkening of the body and a disappearance of a white eye-bar (0:00–0:10), a lightening of the body, the appearance of a white square (0:10–0:20) and a subsequent disappearance of the white square (0:20–0:30). Body color components as defined as described by Hanlon et al [20]. See supporting information (Videos S1,S2) for representative videos of this sleep-like state+CA.
Mentions: All adult cuttlefish exhibited periods of quiescence where they rested against, or buried themselves in substrate on the bottom of the aquarium (Figure 1, Table 1). If provided enough substrate, the animals would completely bury themselves, leaving only their eyes above the gravel. This state was rapidly reversible as the animals quickly moved from the bottom and began swimming when disturbed. There was considerable variability in the amounts of rest across animals and on average there were no day-night differences in activity (Table 1). For three of the five cuttlefish, a state of complete quiescence was followed by a second, sleep-like state that contained phasic motor activity, as reported previously by Duntley et al., [13], [14], [15]. The eyes appeared to rapidly move beneath closed lids, chromatophore activity (CA) suddenly intensified, and the tips of the arms curled and twitched in a way not observed when the cuttlefish was awake (Figure 2 and Video S1,S2). This sleep-like state+CA lasted on average 135 seconds (st.dev. ±23 seconds) and only occurred once (in the night, when there was minimal illumination and disturbance) for each animal during the recording period.

Bottom Line: Rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep has only been observed in vertebrates.We find that cuttlefish exhibit frequent quiescent periods that are homeostatically regulated, satisfying two criteria for sleep.Our findings thus suggest that at least two different sleep-like states may exist in Sepia officinalis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Neuroscience, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America. mgf@mail.med.upenn.edu

ABSTRACT
Sleep has been observed in several invertebrate species, but its presence in marine invertebrates is relatively unexplored. Rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep has only been observed in vertebrates. We investigated whether the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis displays sleep-like states. We find that cuttlefish exhibit frequent quiescent periods that are homeostatically regulated, satisfying two criteria for sleep. In addition, cuttlefish transiently display a quiescent state with rapid eye movements, changes in body coloration and twitching of the arms, that is possibly analogous to REM sleep. Our findings thus suggest that at least two different sleep-like states may exist in Sepia officinalis.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus