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A preliminary analysis of sleep-like states in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.

Frank MG, Waldrop RH, Dumoulin M, Aton S, Boal JG - PLoS ONE (2012)

Bottom Line: Rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep has only been observed in vertebrates.We find that cuttlefish exhibit frequent quiescent periods that are homeostatically regulated, satisfying two criteria for sleep.Our findings thus suggest that at least two different sleep-like states may exist in Sepia officinalis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Neuroscience, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America. mgf@mail.med.upenn.edu

ABSTRACT
Sleep has been observed in several invertebrate species, but its presence in marine invertebrates is relatively unexplored. Rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep has only been observed in vertebrates. We investigated whether the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis displays sleep-like states. We find that cuttlefish exhibit frequent quiescent periods that are homeostatically regulated, satisfying two criteria for sleep. In addition, cuttlefish transiently display a quiescent state with rapid eye movements, changes in body coloration and twitching of the arms, that is possibly analogous to REM sleep. Our findings thus suggest that at least two different sleep-like states may exist in Sepia officinalis.

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States of arousal and quiescence in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.Cuttlefish exhibit clear periods of activity where the animals actively swim (A) or hover (B) and periods of quiescence (C) where they lie on the surface or are partly buried in gravel bedding with closed eyes. An adult/senescent animal is shown.
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pone-0038125-g001: States of arousal and quiescence in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.Cuttlefish exhibit clear periods of activity where the animals actively swim (A) or hover (B) and periods of quiescence (C) where they lie on the surface or are partly buried in gravel bedding with closed eyes. An adult/senescent animal is shown.

Mentions: All adult cuttlefish exhibited periods of quiescence where they rested against, or buried themselves in substrate on the bottom of the aquarium (Figure 1, Table 1). If provided enough substrate, the animals would completely bury themselves, leaving only their eyes above the gravel. This state was rapidly reversible as the animals quickly moved from the bottom and began swimming when disturbed. There was considerable variability in the amounts of rest across animals and on average there were no day-night differences in activity (Table 1). For three of the five cuttlefish, a state of complete quiescence was followed by a second, sleep-like state that contained phasic motor activity, as reported previously by Duntley et al., [13], [14], [15]. The eyes appeared to rapidly move beneath closed lids, chromatophore activity (CA) suddenly intensified, and the tips of the arms curled and twitched in a way not observed when the cuttlefish was awake (Figure 2 and Video S1,S2). This sleep-like state+CA lasted on average 135 seconds (st.dev. ±23 seconds) and only occurred once (in the night, when there was minimal illumination and disturbance) for each animal during the recording period.


A preliminary analysis of sleep-like states in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.

Frank MG, Waldrop RH, Dumoulin M, Aton S, Boal JG - PLoS ONE (2012)

States of arousal and quiescence in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.Cuttlefish exhibit clear periods of activity where the animals actively swim (A) or hover (B) and periods of quiescence (C) where they lie on the surface or are partly buried in gravel bedding with closed eyes. An adult/senescent animal is shown.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3368927&req=5

pone-0038125-g001: States of arousal and quiescence in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.Cuttlefish exhibit clear periods of activity where the animals actively swim (A) or hover (B) and periods of quiescence (C) where they lie on the surface or are partly buried in gravel bedding with closed eyes. An adult/senescent animal is shown.
Mentions: All adult cuttlefish exhibited periods of quiescence where they rested against, or buried themselves in substrate on the bottom of the aquarium (Figure 1, Table 1). If provided enough substrate, the animals would completely bury themselves, leaving only their eyes above the gravel. This state was rapidly reversible as the animals quickly moved from the bottom and began swimming when disturbed. There was considerable variability in the amounts of rest across animals and on average there were no day-night differences in activity (Table 1). For three of the five cuttlefish, a state of complete quiescence was followed by a second, sleep-like state that contained phasic motor activity, as reported previously by Duntley et al., [13], [14], [15]. The eyes appeared to rapidly move beneath closed lids, chromatophore activity (CA) suddenly intensified, and the tips of the arms curled and twitched in a way not observed when the cuttlefish was awake (Figure 2 and Video S1,S2). This sleep-like state+CA lasted on average 135 seconds (st.dev. ±23 seconds) and only occurred once (in the night, when there was minimal illumination and disturbance) for each animal during the recording period.

Bottom Line: Rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep has only been observed in vertebrates.We find that cuttlefish exhibit frequent quiescent periods that are homeostatically regulated, satisfying two criteria for sleep.Our findings thus suggest that at least two different sleep-like states may exist in Sepia officinalis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Neuroscience, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America. mgf@mail.med.upenn.edu

ABSTRACT
Sleep has been observed in several invertebrate species, but its presence in marine invertebrates is relatively unexplored. Rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep has only been observed in vertebrates. We investigated whether the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis displays sleep-like states. We find that cuttlefish exhibit frequent quiescent periods that are homeostatically regulated, satisfying two criteria for sleep. In addition, cuttlefish transiently display a quiescent state with rapid eye movements, changes in body coloration and twitching of the arms, that is possibly analogous to REM sleep. Our findings thus suggest that at least two different sleep-like states may exist in Sepia officinalis.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus