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Metabolism of 2-chloro-4-nitrophenol in a gram negative bacterium, Burkholderia sp. RKJ 800.

Arora PK, Jain RK - PLoS ONE (2012)

Bottom Line: On the basis of thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, chlorohydroquinone (CHQ) and hydroquinone (HQ) were identified as major metabolites of the degradation pathway of 2C4NP.Our studies clearly showed that Burkholderia sp.RKJ 800 degraded 2-chloro-4-nitrophenol via hydroquinone pathway.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Environmental Biotechnology, Institute of Microbial Technology (CSIR), Chandigarh, India. arora484@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
A 2-chloro-4-nitrophenol (2C4NP) degrading bacterial strain designated as RKJ 800 was isolated from a pesticide contaminated site of India by enrichment method and utilized 2C4NP as sole source of carbon and energy. The stoichiometric amounts of nitrite and chloride ions were detected during the degradation of 2C4NP. On the basis of thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, chlorohydroquinone (CHQ) and hydroquinone (HQ) were identified as major metabolites of the degradation pathway of 2C4NP. Manganese dependent HQ dioxygenase activity was observed in the crude extract of 2C4NP induced cells of the strain RKJ 800 that suggested the cleavage of the HQ to γ-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde. On the basis of the 16S rRNA gene sequencing, strain RKJ 800 was identified as a member of genus Burkholderia. Our studies clearly showed that Burkholderia sp. RKJ 800 degraded 2-chloro-4-nitrophenol via hydroquinone pathway. The pathway identified in a gram negative bacterium, Burkholderia sp. strain RKJ 800 was differed from previously reported 2C4NP degradation pathway in another gram-negative Burkholderia sp. SJ98. This is the first report of the formation of CHQ and HQ in the degradation of 2C4NP by any gram-negative bacteria. Laboratory-scale soil microcosm studies showed that strain RKJ 800 is a suitable candidate for bioremediation of 2C4NP contaminated sites.

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Degradation of 2C4NP by strain RKJ 800 during microcosm studies. (a) Microcosm with sterile soil. (b) Microcosm with non sterile soil. (c) Control with sterile soil.(d) Control with non-sterile soil.
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pone-0038676-g008: Degradation of 2C4NP by strain RKJ 800 during microcosm studies. (a) Microcosm with sterile soil. (b) Microcosm with non sterile soil. (c) Control with sterile soil.(d) Control with non-sterile soil.

Mentions: In the test microcosm with sterile soil, there was complete removal of 2C4NP by strain RKJ 800 within 8 days (Fig. 8). There was very slow degradation within initial two days (10%) and after 2 days, degradation was slightly increased and achieved 40% at 4 days. On the sixth days, almost 79% degradation of 2C4NP was completed. The rest 20% degradation was also achieved by 8 days. In the another test microcosm with non-sterile soil, 50 % 2C4NP depletion occurred in the initial 4 days. On the fifth days 72% degradation was completed. Within 7 days 2C4NP was completely degraded by strain RKJ 800. However, in controls with sterile and non sterile soils, very low degradation (only 2–5%) was observed within 10 days.


Metabolism of 2-chloro-4-nitrophenol in a gram negative bacterium, Burkholderia sp. RKJ 800.

Arora PK, Jain RK - PLoS ONE (2012)

Degradation of 2C4NP by strain RKJ 800 during microcosm studies. (a) Microcosm with sterile soil. (b) Microcosm with non sterile soil. (c) Control with sterile soil.(d) Control with non-sterile soil.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3368897&req=5

pone-0038676-g008: Degradation of 2C4NP by strain RKJ 800 during microcosm studies. (a) Microcosm with sterile soil. (b) Microcosm with non sterile soil. (c) Control with sterile soil.(d) Control with non-sterile soil.
Mentions: In the test microcosm with sterile soil, there was complete removal of 2C4NP by strain RKJ 800 within 8 days (Fig. 8). There was very slow degradation within initial two days (10%) and after 2 days, degradation was slightly increased and achieved 40% at 4 days. On the sixth days, almost 79% degradation of 2C4NP was completed. The rest 20% degradation was also achieved by 8 days. In the another test microcosm with non-sterile soil, 50 % 2C4NP depletion occurred in the initial 4 days. On the fifth days 72% degradation was completed. Within 7 days 2C4NP was completely degraded by strain RKJ 800. However, in controls with sterile and non sterile soils, very low degradation (only 2–5%) was observed within 10 days.

Bottom Line: On the basis of thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, chlorohydroquinone (CHQ) and hydroquinone (HQ) were identified as major metabolites of the degradation pathway of 2C4NP.Our studies clearly showed that Burkholderia sp.RKJ 800 degraded 2-chloro-4-nitrophenol via hydroquinone pathway.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Environmental Biotechnology, Institute of Microbial Technology (CSIR), Chandigarh, India. arora484@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
A 2-chloro-4-nitrophenol (2C4NP) degrading bacterial strain designated as RKJ 800 was isolated from a pesticide contaminated site of India by enrichment method and utilized 2C4NP as sole source of carbon and energy. The stoichiometric amounts of nitrite and chloride ions were detected during the degradation of 2C4NP. On the basis of thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, chlorohydroquinone (CHQ) and hydroquinone (HQ) were identified as major metabolites of the degradation pathway of 2C4NP. Manganese dependent HQ dioxygenase activity was observed in the crude extract of 2C4NP induced cells of the strain RKJ 800 that suggested the cleavage of the HQ to γ-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde. On the basis of the 16S rRNA gene sequencing, strain RKJ 800 was identified as a member of genus Burkholderia. Our studies clearly showed that Burkholderia sp. RKJ 800 degraded 2-chloro-4-nitrophenol via hydroquinone pathway. The pathway identified in a gram negative bacterium, Burkholderia sp. strain RKJ 800 was differed from previously reported 2C4NP degradation pathway in another gram-negative Burkholderia sp. SJ98. This is the first report of the formation of CHQ and HQ in the degradation of 2C4NP by any gram-negative bacteria. Laboratory-scale soil microcosm studies showed that strain RKJ 800 is a suitable candidate for bioremediation of 2C4NP contaminated sites.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus