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From parent to gamete: vertical transmission of Symbiodinium (Dinophyceae) ITS2 sequence assemblages in the reef building coral Montipora capitata.

Padilla-Gamiño JL, Pochon X, Bird C, Concepcion GT, Gates RD - PLoS ONE (2012)

Bottom Line: Parental effects are ubiquitous in nature and in many organisms play a particularly critical role in the transfer of symbionts across generations; however, their influence and relative importance in the marine environment has rarely been considered.Coral reefs are biologically diverse and productive marine ecosystems, whose success is framed by symbiosis between reef-building corals and unicellular dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium.We conclude that eggs released by parent colonies during mass spawning events are seeded with different ITS2 sequence assemblages, which encompass phylogenetic variability that may have profound implications for the development, settlement and survival of coral offspring.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Hawai'i Institute of Marine Biology, University of Hawai'i, Kaneohe, Hawai'i, United States of America. jacqueline.padilla.gamino@lifesci.ucsb.edu

ABSTRACT
Parental effects are ubiquitous in nature and in many organisms play a particularly critical role in the transfer of symbionts across generations; however, their influence and relative importance in the marine environment has rarely been considered. Coral reefs are biologically diverse and productive marine ecosystems, whose success is framed by symbiosis between reef-building corals and unicellular dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium. Many corals produce aposymbiotic larvae that are infected by Symbiodinium from the environment (horizontal transmission), which allows for the acquisition of new endosymbionts (different from their parents) each generation. In the remaining species, Symbiodinium are transmitted directly from parent to offspring via eggs (vertical transmission), a mechanism that perpetuates the relationship between some or all of the Symbiodinium diversity found in the parent through multiple generations. Here we examine vertical transmission in the Hawaiian coral Montipora capitata by comparing the Symbiodinium ITS2 sequence assemblages in parent colonies and the eggs they produce. Parental effects on sequence assemblages in eggs are explored in the context of the coral genotype, colony morphology, and the environment of parent colonies. Our results indicate that ITS2 sequence assemblages in eggs are generally similar to their parents, and patterns in parental assemblages are different, and reflect environmental conditions, but not colony morphology or coral genotype. We conclude that eggs released by parent colonies during mass spawning events are seeded with different ITS2 sequence assemblages, which encompass phylogenetic variability that may have profound implications for the development, settlement and survival of coral offspring.

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Abundance and distribution of Symbiodinium sequences and clusters between sites.The frequency of Symbiodinium ITS2 sequences per site (adult and egg) is displayed as bar graphs. The pie charts represent the frequency of Symbiodinium based on six of the seven ITS2 secondary structures (folds a, b, c, d, f and g; see Figure S1); note that fold type e did not meet our criteria for inclusion and was omitted from the downstream analysis.
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pone-0038440-g004: Abundance and distribution of Symbiodinium sequences and clusters between sites.The frequency of Symbiodinium ITS2 sequences per site (adult and egg) is displayed as bar graphs. The pie charts represent the frequency of Symbiodinium based on six of the seven ITS2 secondary structures (folds a, b, c, d, f and g; see Figure S1); note that fold type e did not meet our criteria for inclusion and was omitted from the downstream analysis.

Mentions: The 29 ITS2 sequences grouped into seven secondary structural folds, 5 representing clade C sequences, and 2 clade D (Fig. 3, Fig. 4, Fig. S1). Less abundant sequences generally exhibited identical folding structures to the most closely related dominant sequence. Two sequences, C32.1 and C32.2, exhibited secondary structures that diverged significantly from the fold of their closest relative C21.11, and each resulted in abnormal folding conformation of helix IIIb (Fig. 3, Fig. S1). Based on these structural abnormalities, these sequences did not meet all our criteria for inclusion in the downstream statistical analyses and were excluded.


From parent to gamete: vertical transmission of Symbiodinium (Dinophyceae) ITS2 sequence assemblages in the reef building coral Montipora capitata.

Padilla-Gamiño JL, Pochon X, Bird C, Concepcion GT, Gates RD - PLoS ONE (2012)

Abundance and distribution of Symbiodinium sequences and clusters between sites.The frequency of Symbiodinium ITS2 sequences per site (adult and egg) is displayed as bar graphs. The pie charts represent the frequency of Symbiodinium based on six of the seven ITS2 secondary structures (folds a, b, c, d, f and g; see Figure S1); note that fold type e did not meet our criteria for inclusion and was omitted from the downstream analysis.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3368852&req=5

pone-0038440-g004: Abundance and distribution of Symbiodinium sequences and clusters between sites.The frequency of Symbiodinium ITS2 sequences per site (adult and egg) is displayed as bar graphs. The pie charts represent the frequency of Symbiodinium based on six of the seven ITS2 secondary structures (folds a, b, c, d, f and g; see Figure S1); note that fold type e did not meet our criteria for inclusion and was omitted from the downstream analysis.
Mentions: The 29 ITS2 sequences grouped into seven secondary structural folds, 5 representing clade C sequences, and 2 clade D (Fig. 3, Fig. 4, Fig. S1). Less abundant sequences generally exhibited identical folding structures to the most closely related dominant sequence. Two sequences, C32.1 and C32.2, exhibited secondary structures that diverged significantly from the fold of their closest relative C21.11, and each resulted in abnormal folding conformation of helix IIIb (Fig. 3, Fig. S1). Based on these structural abnormalities, these sequences did not meet all our criteria for inclusion in the downstream statistical analyses and were excluded.

Bottom Line: Parental effects are ubiquitous in nature and in many organisms play a particularly critical role in the transfer of symbionts across generations; however, their influence and relative importance in the marine environment has rarely been considered.Coral reefs are biologically diverse and productive marine ecosystems, whose success is framed by symbiosis between reef-building corals and unicellular dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium.We conclude that eggs released by parent colonies during mass spawning events are seeded with different ITS2 sequence assemblages, which encompass phylogenetic variability that may have profound implications for the development, settlement and survival of coral offspring.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Hawai'i Institute of Marine Biology, University of Hawai'i, Kaneohe, Hawai'i, United States of America. jacqueline.padilla.gamino@lifesci.ucsb.edu

ABSTRACT
Parental effects are ubiquitous in nature and in many organisms play a particularly critical role in the transfer of symbionts across generations; however, their influence and relative importance in the marine environment has rarely been considered. Coral reefs are biologically diverse and productive marine ecosystems, whose success is framed by symbiosis between reef-building corals and unicellular dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium. Many corals produce aposymbiotic larvae that are infected by Symbiodinium from the environment (horizontal transmission), which allows for the acquisition of new endosymbionts (different from their parents) each generation. In the remaining species, Symbiodinium are transmitted directly from parent to offspring via eggs (vertical transmission), a mechanism that perpetuates the relationship between some or all of the Symbiodinium diversity found in the parent through multiple generations. Here we examine vertical transmission in the Hawaiian coral Montipora capitata by comparing the Symbiodinium ITS2 sequence assemblages in parent colonies and the eggs they produce. Parental effects on sequence assemblages in eggs are explored in the context of the coral genotype, colony morphology, and the environment of parent colonies. Our results indicate that ITS2 sequence assemblages in eggs are generally similar to their parents, and patterns in parental assemblages are different, and reflect environmental conditions, but not colony morphology or coral genotype. We conclude that eggs released by parent colonies during mass spawning events are seeded with different ITS2 sequence assemblages, which encompass phylogenetic variability that may have profound implications for the development, settlement and survival of coral offspring.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus