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From parent to gamete: vertical transmission of Symbiodinium (Dinophyceae) ITS2 sequence assemblages in the reef building coral Montipora capitata.

Padilla-Gamiño JL, Pochon X, Bird C, Concepcion GT, Gates RD - PLoS ONE (2012)

Bottom Line: Parental effects are ubiquitous in nature and in many organisms play a particularly critical role in the transfer of symbionts across generations; however, their influence and relative importance in the marine environment has rarely been considered.Coral reefs are biologically diverse and productive marine ecosystems, whose success is framed by symbiosis between reef-building corals and unicellular dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium.We conclude that eggs released by parent colonies during mass spawning events are seeded with different ITS2 sequence assemblages, which encompass phylogenetic variability that may have profound implications for the development, settlement and survival of coral offspring.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Hawai'i Institute of Marine Biology, University of Hawai'i, Kaneohe, Hawai'i, United States of America. jacqueline.padilla.gamino@lifesci.ucsb.edu

ABSTRACT
Parental effects are ubiquitous in nature and in many organisms play a particularly critical role in the transfer of symbionts across generations; however, their influence and relative importance in the marine environment has rarely been considered. Coral reefs are biologically diverse and productive marine ecosystems, whose success is framed by symbiosis between reef-building corals and unicellular dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium. Many corals produce aposymbiotic larvae that are infected by Symbiodinium from the environment (horizontal transmission), which allows for the acquisition of new endosymbionts (different from their parents) each generation. In the remaining species, Symbiodinium are transmitted directly from parent to offspring via eggs (vertical transmission), a mechanism that perpetuates the relationship between some or all of the Symbiodinium diversity found in the parent through multiple generations. Here we examine vertical transmission in the Hawaiian coral Montipora capitata by comparing the Symbiodinium ITS2 sequence assemblages in parent colonies and the eggs they produce. Parental effects on sequence assemblages in eggs are explored in the context of the coral genotype, colony morphology, and the environment of parent colonies. Our results indicate that ITS2 sequence assemblages in eggs are generally similar to their parents, and patterns in parental assemblages are different, and reflect environmental conditions, but not colony morphology or coral genotype. We conclude that eggs released by parent colonies during mass spawning events are seeded with different ITS2 sequence assemblages, which encompass phylogenetic variability that may have profound implications for the development, settlement and survival of coral offspring.

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Montipora capitata colonies, their eggs and symbiotic Symbiodinium cells inside the eggs.(a) plating and (b) branching morphologies, (c) eggs seeded with Symbiodinium cells acquired from parent colonies and (d) close up of Symbiodinium cells inside the egg, lighter circles are lipid droplets, darker circles are Symbiodinium cells.
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pone-0038440-g002: Montipora capitata colonies, their eggs and symbiotic Symbiodinium cells inside the eggs.(a) plating and (b) branching morphologies, (c) eggs seeded with Symbiodinium cells acquired from parent colonies and (d) close up of Symbiodinium cells inside the egg, lighter circles are lipid droplets, darker circles are Symbiodinium cells.

Mentions: Parent colonies and gametes were sampled at three sites around Moku O Lo’e Island in Kane’ohe Bay, Hawai’i: Bridge to Nowhere (BTN), Gilligan’s Lagoon (GL), and Point Reef (PR) (Fig. 1) during the summers of 2007 and 2008. These sites are located at N 21° 25.893′ and W 157° 47.376′, N 21° 25.973′ and W 157° 47.392′, N 21° 25.988′ and W 157° 47.192′, respectively. Montipora capitata colonies exhibited primarily branching morphologies at BTN, plating at GL, and both branching or plating at PR (Fig. 2 a,b). The PR site was only sampled in 2008 and was included to examine whether Symbiodinium ITS2 sequence assemblages differed in corals sampled at a site where both branching and plating morphologies co-occur.


From parent to gamete: vertical transmission of Symbiodinium (Dinophyceae) ITS2 sequence assemblages in the reef building coral Montipora capitata.

Padilla-Gamiño JL, Pochon X, Bird C, Concepcion GT, Gates RD - PLoS ONE (2012)

Montipora capitata colonies, their eggs and symbiotic Symbiodinium cells inside the eggs.(a) plating and (b) branching morphologies, (c) eggs seeded with Symbiodinium cells acquired from parent colonies and (d) close up of Symbiodinium cells inside the egg, lighter circles are lipid droplets, darker circles are Symbiodinium cells.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3368852&req=5

pone-0038440-g002: Montipora capitata colonies, their eggs and symbiotic Symbiodinium cells inside the eggs.(a) plating and (b) branching morphologies, (c) eggs seeded with Symbiodinium cells acquired from parent colonies and (d) close up of Symbiodinium cells inside the egg, lighter circles are lipid droplets, darker circles are Symbiodinium cells.
Mentions: Parent colonies and gametes were sampled at three sites around Moku O Lo’e Island in Kane’ohe Bay, Hawai’i: Bridge to Nowhere (BTN), Gilligan’s Lagoon (GL), and Point Reef (PR) (Fig. 1) during the summers of 2007 and 2008. These sites are located at N 21° 25.893′ and W 157° 47.376′, N 21° 25.973′ and W 157° 47.392′, N 21° 25.988′ and W 157° 47.192′, respectively. Montipora capitata colonies exhibited primarily branching morphologies at BTN, plating at GL, and both branching or plating at PR (Fig. 2 a,b). The PR site was only sampled in 2008 and was included to examine whether Symbiodinium ITS2 sequence assemblages differed in corals sampled at a site where both branching and plating morphologies co-occur.

Bottom Line: Parental effects are ubiquitous in nature and in many organisms play a particularly critical role in the transfer of symbionts across generations; however, their influence and relative importance in the marine environment has rarely been considered.Coral reefs are biologically diverse and productive marine ecosystems, whose success is framed by symbiosis between reef-building corals and unicellular dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium.We conclude that eggs released by parent colonies during mass spawning events are seeded with different ITS2 sequence assemblages, which encompass phylogenetic variability that may have profound implications for the development, settlement and survival of coral offspring.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Hawai'i Institute of Marine Biology, University of Hawai'i, Kaneohe, Hawai'i, United States of America. jacqueline.padilla.gamino@lifesci.ucsb.edu

ABSTRACT
Parental effects are ubiquitous in nature and in many organisms play a particularly critical role in the transfer of symbionts across generations; however, their influence and relative importance in the marine environment has rarely been considered. Coral reefs are biologically diverse and productive marine ecosystems, whose success is framed by symbiosis between reef-building corals and unicellular dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium. Many corals produce aposymbiotic larvae that are infected by Symbiodinium from the environment (horizontal transmission), which allows for the acquisition of new endosymbionts (different from their parents) each generation. In the remaining species, Symbiodinium are transmitted directly from parent to offspring via eggs (vertical transmission), a mechanism that perpetuates the relationship between some or all of the Symbiodinium diversity found in the parent through multiple generations. Here we examine vertical transmission in the Hawaiian coral Montipora capitata by comparing the Symbiodinium ITS2 sequence assemblages in parent colonies and the eggs they produce. Parental effects on sequence assemblages in eggs are explored in the context of the coral genotype, colony morphology, and the environment of parent colonies. Our results indicate that ITS2 sequence assemblages in eggs are generally similar to their parents, and patterns in parental assemblages are different, and reflect environmental conditions, but not colony morphology or coral genotype. We conclude that eggs released by parent colonies during mass spawning events are seeded with different ITS2 sequence assemblages, which encompass phylogenetic variability that may have profound implications for the development, settlement and survival of coral offspring.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus