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Multiple endocrine neoplasias type 2B and RET proto-oncogene.

Martucciello G, Lerone M, Bricco L, Tonini GP, Lombardi L, Del Rossi CG, Bernasconi S - Ital J Pediatr (2012)

Bottom Line: The 95% of MEN 2B patients are associated with a point mutation in exon 16 (M918/T).A second point mutation at codon 883 has been found in 2%-3% of MEN 2B cases.When possible, this intervention should be performed with prophylactic aim before 1 year of age in patients with molecular genetic diagnosis.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: University of Genova, DIPE, Via Gaslini, 5 Genova (16147), Italy. martucciello@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 2B (MEN 2B) is an autosomal dominant complex oncologic neurocristopathy including medullary thyroid carcinoma, pheochromocytoma, gastrointestinal disorders, marphanoid face, and mucosal multiple ganglioneuromas. Medullary thyroid carcinoma is the major cause of mortality in MEN 2B syndrome, and it often appears during the first years of life. RET proto-oncogene germline activating mutations are causative for MEN 2B. The 95% of MEN 2B patients are associated with a point mutation in exon 16 (M918/T). A second point mutation at codon 883 has been found in 2%-3% of MEN 2B cases. RET proto-oncogene is also involved in different neoplastic and not neoplastic neurocristopathies. Other RET mutations cause MEN 2A syndrome, familial medullary thyroid carcinoma, or Hirschsprung's disease. RET gene expression is also involved in Neuroblastoma. The main diagnosis standards are the acetylcholinesterase study of rectal mucosa and the molecular analysis of RET. In our protocol the rectal biopsy is, therefore, the first approach. RET mutation detection offers the possibility to diagnose MEN 2B predisposition at a pre-clinical stage in familial cases, and to perform an early total prophylactic thyroidectomy. The surgical treatment of MEN 2B is total thyroidectomy with cervical limphadenectomy of the central compartment of the neck. When possible, this intervention should be performed with prophylactic aim before 1 year of age in patients with molecular genetic diagnosis. Recent advances into the mechanisms of RET proto-oncogene signaling and pathways of RET signal transduction in the development of MEN 2 and MTC will allow new treatment possibilities.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Multiple pseudo-polyps and bumps on the tongue. The lesions are mucous ganglioneurofibromas and ganglioneuromas.
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Figure 2: Multiple pseudo-polyps and bumps on the tongue. The lesions are mucous ganglioneurofibromas and ganglioneuromas.

Mentions: Multiple mucosal pseudo-polyps and bumps become progressively evident in oral cavity, on the mucosal surface of the lips and on the tongue (Figure 1 and 2). They generally develop during the first months of life [17,18]. Every part of gastrointestinal tract is affected. The clinical examination of the oral cavity is very important for the early suspect of the syndrome. In every child with bumpy lips and tongue associated with intestinal constipation, MEN 2B should be suspected and excluded.


Multiple endocrine neoplasias type 2B and RET proto-oncogene.

Martucciello G, Lerone M, Bricco L, Tonini GP, Lombardi L, Del Rossi CG, Bernasconi S - Ital J Pediatr (2012)

Multiple pseudo-polyps and bumps on the tongue. The lesions are mucous ganglioneurofibromas and ganglioneuromas.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3368781&req=5

Figure 2: Multiple pseudo-polyps and bumps on the tongue. The lesions are mucous ganglioneurofibromas and ganglioneuromas.
Mentions: Multiple mucosal pseudo-polyps and bumps become progressively evident in oral cavity, on the mucosal surface of the lips and on the tongue (Figure 1 and 2). They generally develop during the first months of life [17,18]. Every part of gastrointestinal tract is affected. The clinical examination of the oral cavity is very important for the early suspect of the syndrome. In every child with bumpy lips and tongue associated with intestinal constipation, MEN 2B should be suspected and excluded.

Bottom Line: The 95% of MEN 2B patients are associated with a point mutation in exon 16 (M918/T).A second point mutation at codon 883 has been found in 2%-3% of MEN 2B cases.When possible, this intervention should be performed with prophylactic aim before 1 year of age in patients with molecular genetic diagnosis.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: University of Genova, DIPE, Via Gaslini, 5 Genova (16147), Italy. martucciello@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 2B (MEN 2B) is an autosomal dominant complex oncologic neurocristopathy including medullary thyroid carcinoma, pheochromocytoma, gastrointestinal disorders, marphanoid face, and mucosal multiple ganglioneuromas. Medullary thyroid carcinoma is the major cause of mortality in MEN 2B syndrome, and it often appears during the first years of life. RET proto-oncogene germline activating mutations are causative for MEN 2B. The 95% of MEN 2B patients are associated with a point mutation in exon 16 (M918/T). A second point mutation at codon 883 has been found in 2%-3% of MEN 2B cases. RET proto-oncogene is also involved in different neoplastic and not neoplastic neurocristopathies. Other RET mutations cause MEN 2A syndrome, familial medullary thyroid carcinoma, or Hirschsprung's disease. RET gene expression is also involved in Neuroblastoma. The main diagnosis standards are the acetylcholinesterase study of rectal mucosa and the molecular analysis of RET. In our protocol the rectal biopsy is, therefore, the first approach. RET mutation detection offers the possibility to diagnose MEN 2B predisposition at a pre-clinical stage in familial cases, and to perform an early total prophylactic thyroidectomy. The surgical treatment of MEN 2B is total thyroidectomy with cervical limphadenectomy of the central compartment of the neck. When possible, this intervention should be performed with prophylactic aim before 1 year of age in patients with molecular genetic diagnosis. Recent advances into the mechanisms of RET proto-oncogene signaling and pathways of RET signal transduction in the development of MEN 2 and MTC will allow new treatment possibilities.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus