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Temporal, seasonal and weather effects on cycle volume: an ecological study.

Tin Tin S, Woodward A, Robinson E, Ameratunga S - Environ Health (2012)

Bottom Line: Cycling has the potential to provide health, environmental and economic benefits but the level of cycling is very low in New Zealand and many other countries.Adverse weather is often cited as a reason why people do not cycle.Our findings will help inform future cycling promotion activities in Auckland.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Section of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Population Health, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand. s.tintin@auckland.ac.nz

ABSTRACT

Background: Cycling has the potential to provide health, environmental and economic benefits but the level of cycling is very low in New Zealand and many other countries. Adverse weather is often cited as a reason why people do not cycle. This study investigated temporal and seasonal variability in cycle volume and its association with weather in Auckland, New Zealand's largest city.

Methods: Two datasets were used: automated cycle count data collected on Tamaki Drive in Auckland by using ZELT Inductive Loop Eco-counters and weather data (gust speed, rain, temperature, sunshine duration) available online from the National Climate Database. Analyses were undertaken using data collected over one year (1 January to 31 December 2009). Normalised cycle volumes were used in correlation and regression analyses to accommodate differences by hour of the day and day of the week and holiday.

Results: In 2009, 220,043 bicycles were recorded at the site. There were significant differences in mean hourly cycle volumes by hour of the day, day type and month of the year (p < 0.0001). All weather variables significantly influenced hourly and daily cycle volumes (p < 0.0001). The cycle volume increased by 3.2% (hourly) and 2.6% (daily) for 1°C increase in temperature but decreased by 10.6% (hourly) and 1.5% (daily) for 1 mm increase in rainfall and by 1.4% (hourly) and 0.9% (daily) for 1 km/h increase in gust speed. The volume was 26.2% higher in an hour with sunshine compared with no sunshine, and increased by 2.5% for one hour increase in sunshine each day.

Conclusions: There are temporal and seasonal variations in cycle volume in Auckland and weather significantly influences hour-to-hour and day-to-day variations in cycle volume. Our findings will help inform future cycling promotion activities in Auckland.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Mean hourly cycle volume by hour. Error bars represent 95% confidence intervals.
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Figure 2: Mean hourly cycle volume by hour. Error bars represent 95% confidence intervals.

Mentions: There were significant differences (p < 0.0001) in mean hourly cycle volumes either on path or on lane by hour of the day (Figure 2), day of the week and holiday (Figure 3) and month of the year (Figure 4). The peak cycle volume occurred between 7:00 and 8:00 am in the morning and between 5:00 and 6:00 pm in the evening. The volume was lower on weekdays compared to weekends and holidays. The highest volume was observed in January and February, the hottest months of the year, and the lowest volume in July, the coldest month.


Temporal, seasonal and weather effects on cycle volume: an ecological study.

Tin Tin S, Woodward A, Robinson E, Ameratunga S - Environ Health (2012)

Mean hourly cycle volume by hour. Error bars represent 95% confidence intervals.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3368741&req=5

Figure 2: Mean hourly cycle volume by hour. Error bars represent 95% confidence intervals.
Mentions: There were significant differences (p < 0.0001) in mean hourly cycle volumes either on path or on lane by hour of the day (Figure 2), day of the week and holiday (Figure 3) and month of the year (Figure 4). The peak cycle volume occurred between 7:00 and 8:00 am in the morning and between 5:00 and 6:00 pm in the evening. The volume was lower on weekdays compared to weekends and holidays. The highest volume was observed in January and February, the hottest months of the year, and the lowest volume in July, the coldest month.

Bottom Line: Cycling has the potential to provide health, environmental and economic benefits but the level of cycling is very low in New Zealand and many other countries.Adverse weather is often cited as a reason why people do not cycle.Our findings will help inform future cycling promotion activities in Auckland.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Section of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Population Health, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand. s.tintin@auckland.ac.nz

ABSTRACT

Background: Cycling has the potential to provide health, environmental and economic benefits but the level of cycling is very low in New Zealand and many other countries. Adverse weather is often cited as a reason why people do not cycle. This study investigated temporal and seasonal variability in cycle volume and its association with weather in Auckland, New Zealand's largest city.

Methods: Two datasets were used: automated cycle count data collected on Tamaki Drive in Auckland by using ZELT Inductive Loop Eco-counters and weather data (gust speed, rain, temperature, sunshine duration) available online from the National Climate Database. Analyses were undertaken using data collected over one year (1 January to 31 December 2009). Normalised cycle volumes were used in correlation and regression analyses to accommodate differences by hour of the day and day of the week and holiday.

Results: In 2009, 220,043 bicycles were recorded at the site. There were significant differences in mean hourly cycle volumes by hour of the day, day type and month of the year (p < 0.0001). All weather variables significantly influenced hourly and daily cycle volumes (p < 0.0001). The cycle volume increased by 3.2% (hourly) and 2.6% (daily) for 1°C increase in temperature but decreased by 10.6% (hourly) and 1.5% (daily) for 1 mm increase in rainfall and by 1.4% (hourly) and 0.9% (daily) for 1 km/h increase in gust speed. The volume was 26.2% higher in an hour with sunshine compared with no sunshine, and increased by 2.5% for one hour increase in sunshine each day.

Conclusions: There are temporal and seasonal variations in cycle volume in Auckland and weather significantly influences hour-to-hour and day-to-day variations in cycle volume. Our findings will help inform future cycling promotion activities in Auckland.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus