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Temporal, seasonal and weather effects on cycle volume: an ecological study.

Tin Tin S, Woodward A, Robinson E, Ameratunga S - Environ Health (2012)

Bottom Line: Cycling has the potential to provide health, environmental and economic benefits but the level of cycling is very low in New Zealand and many other countries.Adverse weather is often cited as a reason why people do not cycle.Our findings will help inform future cycling promotion activities in Auckland.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Section of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Population Health, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand. s.tintin@auckland.ac.nz

ABSTRACT

Background: Cycling has the potential to provide health, environmental and economic benefits but the level of cycling is very low in New Zealand and many other countries. Adverse weather is often cited as a reason why people do not cycle. This study investigated temporal and seasonal variability in cycle volume and its association with weather in Auckland, New Zealand's largest city.

Methods: Two datasets were used: automated cycle count data collected on Tamaki Drive in Auckland by using ZELT Inductive Loop Eco-counters and weather data (gust speed, rain, temperature, sunshine duration) available online from the National Climate Database. Analyses were undertaken using data collected over one year (1 January to 31 December 2009). Normalised cycle volumes were used in correlation and regression analyses to accommodate differences by hour of the day and day of the week and holiday.

Results: In 2009, 220,043 bicycles were recorded at the site. There were significant differences in mean hourly cycle volumes by hour of the day, day type and month of the year (p < 0.0001). All weather variables significantly influenced hourly and daily cycle volumes (p < 0.0001). The cycle volume increased by 3.2% (hourly) and 2.6% (daily) for 1°C increase in temperature but decreased by 10.6% (hourly) and 1.5% (daily) for 1 mm increase in rainfall and by 1.4% (hourly) and 0.9% (daily) for 1 km/h increase in gust speed. The volume was 26.2% higher in an hour with sunshine compared with no sunshine, and increased by 2.5% for one hour increase in sunshine each day.

Conclusions: There are temporal and seasonal variations in cycle volume in Auckland and weather significantly influences hour-to-hour and day-to-day variations in cycle volume. Our findings will help inform future cycling promotion activities in Auckland.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Location of cycle counters. Red downwards arrow symbol indicates location of cycle counters on Tamaki Drive.
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Figure 1: Location of cycle counters. Red downwards arrow symbol indicates location of cycle counters on Tamaki Drive.

Mentions: Continuous automated cycle counting has been undertaken by ITS at a single site on Tamaki Drive in Auckland since December 2008 (Figure 1). Tamaki Drive runs ten kilometres along the coastline from the central business district to St Heliers Bay and is a busy cycling route for both recreational and commuting purposes. ZELT Inductive Loop Eco-counters were used to record bicycle counts. The site incorporated four inductive loops were inserted under the surface on the side of the road where traffic flows out of the city, that is, the upper side of the road in Figure 1. Note that traffic keeps to the left side of the road in New Zealand. Two loops were inserted on the on-road bicycle lane (adjacent to but not separated from motorised traffic) and two on the off-road shared bicycle and pedestrian path (separated from motorised traffic). Cyclists travel in the same direction as motorised traffic on the bicycle lane whereas they often travel in both directions on the shared path.


Temporal, seasonal and weather effects on cycle volume: an ecological study.

Tin Tin S, Woodward A, Robinson E, Ameratunga S - Environ Health (2012)

Location of cycle counters. Red downwards arrow symbol indicates location of cycle counters on Tamaki Drive.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3368741&req=5

Figure 1: Location of cycle counters. Red downwards arrow symbol indicates location of cycle counters on Tamaki Drive.
Mentions: Continuous automated cycle counting has been undertaken by ITS at a single site on Tamaki Drive in Auckland since December 2008 (Figure 1). Tamaki Drive runs ten kilometres along the coastline from the central business district to St Heliers Bay and is a busy cycling route for both recreational and commuting purposes. ZELT Inductive Loop Eco-counters were used to record bicycle counts. The site incorporated four inductive loops were inserted under the surface on the side of the road where traffic flows out of the city, that is, the upper side of the road in Figure 1. Note that traffic keeps to the left side of the road in New Zealand. Two loops were inserted on the on-road bicycle lane (adjacent to but not separated from motorised traffic) and two on the off-road shared bicycle and pedestrian path (separated from motorised traffic). Cyclists travel in the same direction as motorised traffic on the bicycle lane whereas they often travel in both directions on the shared path.

Bottom Line: Cycling has the potential to provide health, environmental and economic benefits but the level of cycling is very low in New Zealand and many other countries.Adverse weather is often cited as a reason why people do not cycle.Our findings will help inform future cycling promotion activities in Auckland.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Section of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Population Health, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand. s.tintin@auckland.ac.nz

ABSTRACT

Background: Cycling has the potential to provide health, environmental and economic benefits but the level of cycling is very low in New Zealand and many other countries. Adverse weather is often cited as a reason why people do not cycle. This study investigated temporal and seasonal variability in cycle volume and its association with weather in Auckland, New Zealand's largest city.

Methods: Two datasets were used: automated cycle count data collected on Tamaki Drive in Auckland by using ZELT Inductive Loop Eco-counters and weather data (gust speed, rain, temperature, sunshine duration) available online from the National Climate Database. Analyses were undertaken using data collected over one year (1 January to 31 December 2009). Normalised cycle volumes were used in correlation and regression analyses to accommodate differences by hour of the day and day of the week and holiday.

Results: In 2009, 220,043 bicycles were recorded at the site. There were significant differences in mean hourly cycle volumes by hour of the day, day type and month of the year (p < 0.0001). All weather variables significantly influenced hourly and daily cycle volumes (p < 0.0001). The cycle volume increased by 3.2% (hourly) and 2.6% (daily) for 1°C increase in temperature but decreased by 10.6% (hourly) and 1.5% (daily) for 1 mm increase in rainfall and by 1.4% (hourly) and 0.9% (daily) for 1 km/h increase in gust speed. The volume was 26.2% higher in an hour with sunshine compared with no sunshine, and increased by 2.5% for one hour increase in sunshine each day.

Conclusions: There are temporal and seasonal variations in cycle volume in Auckland and weather significantly influences hour-to-hour and day-to-day variations in cycle volume. Our findings will help inform future cycling promotion activities in Auckland.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus