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Multilocus microsatellite analysis of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' associated with citrus Huanglongbing worldwide.

Islam MS, Glynn JM, Bai Y, Duan YP, Coletta-Filho HD, Kuruba G, Civerolo EL, Lin H - BMC Microbiol. (2012)

Bottom Line: HLB-associated Liberibacters have spread to North America and South America in recent years.Our results identified three major genetic groups of 'Ca.L. asiaticus'.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: USDA-ARS San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Research Science Center, Parlier, CA 93648, USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most destructive citrus diseases in the world. The disease is associated with the presence of a fastidious, phloem-limited α- proteobacterium, 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus', 'Ca. Liberibacter africanus' or 'Ca. Liberibacter americanus'. HLB-associated Liberibacters have spread to North America and South America in recent years. While the causal agents of HLB have been putatively identified, information regarding the worldwide population structure and epidemiological relationships for 'Ca. L. asiaticus' is limited. The availability of the 'Ca. L. asiaticus' genome sequence has facilitated development of molecular markers from this bacterium. The objectives of this study were to develop microsatellite markers and conduct genetic analyses of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' from a worldwide collection. Two hundred eighty seven isolates from USA (Florida), Brazil, China, India, Cambodia, Vietnam, Taiwan, Thailand, and Japan were analyzed.

Results: A panel of seven polymorphic microsatellite markers was developed for 'Ca. L. asiaticus'. Microsatellite analyses across the samples showed that the genetic diversity of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' is higher in Asia than Americas. UPGMA and STRUCTURE analyses identified three major genetic groups worldwide. Isolates from India were genetically distinct. East-southeast Asian and Brazilian isolates were generally included in the same group; a few members of this group were found in Florida, but the majority of the isolates from Florida were clustered separately. eBURST analysis predicted three founder haplotypes, which may have given rise to three groups worldwide.

Conclusions: Our results identified three major genetic groups of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' worldwide. Isolates from Brazil showed similar genetic makeup with east-southeast Asian dominant group, suggesting the possibility of a common origin. However, most of the isolates recovered from Florida were clustered in a separate group. While the sources of the dominant 'Ca. L. asiaticus' in Florida were not clearly understood, the less-pervasive groups may have been introduced directly from Asia or via Brazil. Notably, the recent outbreak of HLB in Florida probably occurred through multiple introductions. Microsatellite markers developed in this study provide adequate discriminatory power for the identification and differentiation of closely-related isolates, as well as for genetic studies of 'Ca. L. asiaticus'.

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UPGMA dendrogram showing the genetic relationships of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' isolates from different locations within an individual country as well as from different countries (from Asia and Americas). Clone-corrected data were used for constructing the dendrogram based on DA distance [22]. Only bootstrap values > 25% are shown.
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Figure 1: UPGMA dendrogram showing the genetic relationships of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' isolates from different locations within an individual country as well as from different countries (from Asia and Americas). Clone-corrected data were used for constructing the dendrogram based on DA distance [22]. Only bootstrap values > 25% are shown.

Mentions: A UPGMA clustering analysis identified three major groups of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' (Figure 1). Isolates from India were clustered in a distinct group (group 3). Most of the isolates from China and other Asian countries, and Brazil were generally grouped in group 1. While some isolates from Florida occurred in group 1, most isolates from Florida were clustered in group 2 (Figure 1).


Multilocus microsatellite analysis of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' associated with citrus Huanglongbing worldwide.

Islam MS, Glynn JM, Bai Y, Duan YP, Coletta-Filho HD, Kuruba G, Civerolo EL, Lin H - BMC Microbiol. (2012)

UPGMA dendrogram showing the genetic relationships of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' isolates from different locations within an individual country as well as from different countries (from Asia and Americas). Clone-corrected data were used for constructing the dendrogram based on DA distance [22]. Only bootstrap values > 25% are shown.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3368738&req=5

Figure 1: UPGMA dendrogram showing the genetic relationships of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' isolates from different locations within an individual country as well as from different countries (from Asia and Americas). Clone-corrected data were used for constructing the dendrogram based on DA distance [22]. Only bootstrap values > 25% are shown.
Mentions: A UPGMA clustering analysis identified three major groups of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' (Figure 1). Isolates from India were clustered in a distinct group (group 3). Most of the isolates from China and other Asian countries, and Brazil were generally grouped in group 1. While some isolates from Florida occurred in group 1, most isolates from Florida were clustered in group 2 (Figure 1).

Bottom Line: HLB-associated Liberibacters have spread to North America and South America in recent years.Our results identified three major genetic groups of 'Ca.L. asiaticus'.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: USDA-ARS San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Research Science Center, Parlier, CA 93648, USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most destructive citrus diseases in the world. The disease is associated with the presence of a fastidious, phloem-limited α- proteobacterium, 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus', 'Ca. Liberibacter africanus' or 'Ca. Liberibacter americanus'. HLB-associated Liberibacters have spread to North America and South America in recent years. While the causal agents of HLB have been putatively identified, information regarding the worldwide population structure and epidemiological relationships for 'Ca. L. asiaticus' is limited. The availability of the 'Ca. L. asiaticus' genome sequence has facilitated development of molecular markers from this bacterium. The objectives of this study were to develop microsatellite markers and conduct genetic analyses of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' from a worldwide collection. Two hundred eighty seven isolates from USA (Florida), Brazil, China, India, Cambodia, Vietnam, Taiwan, Thailand, and Japan were analyzed.

Results: A panel of seven polymorphic microsatellite markers was developed for 'Ca. L. asiaticus'. Microsatellite analyses across the samples showed that the genetic diversity of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' is higher in Asia than Americas. UPGMA and STRUCTURE analyses identified three major genetic groups worldwide. Isolates from India were genetically distinct. East-southeast Asian and Brazilian isolates were generally included in the same group; a few members of this group were found in Florida, but the majority of the isolates from Florida were clustered separately. eBURST analysis predicted three founder haplotypes, which may have given rise to three groups worldwide.

Conclusions: Our results identified three major genetic groups of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' worldwide. Isolates from Brazil showed similar genetic makeup with east-southeast Asian dominant group, suggesting the possibility of a common origin. However, most of the isolates recovered from Florida were clustered in a separate group. While the sources of the dominant 'Ca. L. asiaticus' in Florida were not clearly understood, the less-pervasive groups may have been introduced directly from Asia or via Brazil. Notably, the recent outbreak of HLB in Florida probably occurred through multiple introductions. Microsatellite markers developed in this study provide adequate discriminatory power for the identification and differentiation of closely-related isolates, as well as for genetic studies of 'Ca. L. asiaticus'.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus