Limits...
Cell Reprogramming, IPS Limitations, and Overcoming Strategies in Dental Bioengineering.

Ibarretxe G, Alvarez A, CaƱavate ML, Hilario E, Aurrekoetxea M, Unda F - Stem Cells Int (2012)

Bottom Line: The potential of IPS cell technology is tremendous, but it will be essential to improve the methodologies for IPS cell generation and to precisely evaluate each clone and subclone of IPS cells for their safety and efficacy.Additionally, the current state of knowledge on IPS cells advises that research on their regenerative properties is carried out in appropriate tissue and organ systems that permit a safe assessment of the long-term behavior of these reprogrammed cells.In the present paper, we discuss the mechanisms of cell reprogramming, current technical limitations of IPS cells for their use in human tissue engineering, and possibilities to overcome them in the particular case of dental regeneration.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Cell Biology and Histology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), 48940 Leioa, Spain.

ABSTRACT
The procurement of induced pluripotent stem cells, or IPS cells, from adult differentiated animal cells has the potential to revolutionize future medicine, where reprogrammed IPS cells may be used to repair disease-affected tissues on demand. The potential of IPS cell technology is tremendous, but it will be essential to improve the methodologies for IPS cell generation and to precisely evaluate each clone and subclone of IPS cells for their safety and efficacy. Additionally, the current state of knowledge on IPS cells advises that research on their regenerative properties is carried out in appropriate tissue and organ systems that permit a safe assessment of the long-term behavior of these reprogrammed cells. In the present paper, we discuss the mechanisms of cell reprogramming, current technical limitations of IPS cells for their use in human tissue engineering, and possibilities to overcome them in the particular case of dental regeneration.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Theoretical design of a dental engineering process involving IPS cells. Tooth tissues already present well-characterized populations of ectomesenchymal SCs, that can generate de novo a complete dentin-pulp complex and periodontium. The hard enamel tissue constituting the remaining part of the tooth must be formed by dental epithelial cells. In this context, autogenic IPS cells could be used as a source of new dental epithelium, to be recombined with ectomesenchymal cells, thus creating a bioengineered tooth germ that can be cultured in vitro and transplanted to the jawbone/maxillary bone of a recipient host to form a fully functional tooth. Almost all IPS-derived epithelial cells will disappear after tooth eruption, as a consequence of normal dental development.
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fig3: Theoretical design of a dental engineering process involving IPS cells. Tooth tissues already present well-characterized populations of ectomesenchymal SCs, that can generate de novo a complete dentin-pulp complex and periodontium. The hard enamel tissue constituting the remaining part of the tooth must be formed by dental epithelial cells. In this context, autogenic IPS cells could be used as a source of new dental epithelium, to be recombined with ectomesenchymal cells, thus creating a bioengineered tooth germ that can be cultured in vitro and transplanted to the jawbone/maxillary bone of a recipient host to form a fully functional tooth. Almost all IPS-derived epithelial cells will disappear after tooth eruption, as a consequence of normal dental development.

Mentions: However, obviously much experimentation is required and major issues need yet to be solved before an approach like tooth germ engineering by dental stem cell recombination can be translated to the dental clinic. Probably the most important limiting factor is the absence of consistent sources of epithelial SC with odontogenic potential in the adult human individual, to be recombined with endogenous dental mesenchymal SCs. There has been substantial progress in the identification of possible epithelial substitutes, using PDL-derived ECRM [68], and postnatal oral mucosal epithelial cells [69]. Both these cell types can be cultured in vitro and induced to differentiate to ameloblastic cell lineages. Another realistic possibility, exclusively for research purposes, would constitute the rodent incisor, which contains an epithelial stem cell niche [70]. However, although the sources of endogenous dental epithelial SC seem to be scarce, an appealing alternative would be to obtain them from autogenic IPS cells, properly differentiated in vitro. Once this step is accomplished, the remaining process of recombination into collagen scaffold matrices, in vitro organ culture, and in vivo transplantation should not pose extreme technical difficulties. The final outcome would be a fully developed bioengineered human tooth obtained from dissociated autogenic EMSC and IPS cells, in which the latter would almost completely disappear after tooth eruption (Figure 3).


Cell Reprogramming, IPS Limitations, and Overcoming Strategies in Dental Bioengineering.

Ibarretxe G, Alvarez A, CaƱavate ML, Hilario E, Aurrekoetxea M, Unda F - Stem Cells Int (2012)

Theoretical design of a dental engineering process involving IPS cells. Tooth tissues already present well-characterized populations of ectomesenchymal SCs, that can generate de novo a complete dentin-pulp complex and periodontium. The hard enamel tissue constituting the remaining part of the tooth must be formed by dental epithelial cells. In this context, autogenic IPS cells could be used as a source of new dental epithelium, to be recombined with ectomesenchymal cells, thus creating a bioengineered tooth germ that can be cultured in vitro and transplanted to the jawbone/maxillary bone of a recipient host to form a fully functional tooth. Almost all IPS-derived epithelial cells will disappear after tooth eruption, as a consequence of normal dental development.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3368489&req=5

fig3: Theoretical design of a dental engineering process involving IPS cells. Tooth tissues already present well-characterized populations of ectomesenchymal SCs, that can generate de novo a complete dentin-pulp complex and periodontium. The hard enamel tissue constituting the remaining part of the tooth must be formed by dental epithelial cells. In this context, autogenic IPS cells could be used as a source of new dental epithelium, to be recombined with ectomesenchymal cells, thus creating a bioengineered tooth germ that can be cultured in vitro and transplanted to the jawbone/maxillary bone of a recipient host to form a fully functional tooth. Almost all IPS-derived epithelial cells will disappear after tooth eruption, as a consequence of normal dental development.
Mentions: However, obviously much experimentation is required and major issues need yet to be solved before an approach like tooth germ engineering by dental stem cell recombination can be translated to the dental clinic. Probably the most important limiting factor is the absence of consistent sources of epithelial SC with odontogenic potential in the adult human individual, to be recombined with endogenous dental mesenchymal SCs. There has been substantial progress in the identification of possible epithelial substitutes, using PDL-derived ECRM [68], and postnatal oral mucosal epithelial cells [69]. Both these cell types can be cultured in vitro and induced to differentiate to ameloblastic cell lineages. Another realistic possibility, exclusively for research purposes, would constitute the rodent incisor, which contains an epithelial stem cell niche [70]. However, although the sources of endogenous dental epithelial SC seem to be scarce, an appealing alternative would be to obtain them from autogenic IPS cells, properly differentiated in vitro. Once this step is accomplished, the remaining process of recombination into collagen scaffold matrices, in vitro organ culture, and in vivo transplantation should not pose extreme technical difficulties. The final outcome would be a fully developed bioengineered human tooth obtained from dissociated autogenic EMSC and IPS cells, in which the latter would almost completely disappear after tooth eruption (Figure 3).

Bottom Line: The potential of IPS cell technology is tremendous, but it will be essential to improve the methodologies for IPS cell generation and to precisely evaluate each clone and subclone of IPS cells for their safety and efficacy.Additionally, the current state of knowledge on IPS cells advises that research on their regenerative properties is carried out in appropriate tissue and organ systems that permit a safe assessment of the long-term behavior of these reprogrammed cells.In the present paper, we discuss the mechanisms of cell reprogramming, current technical limitations of IPS cells for their use in human tissue engineering, and possibilities to overcome them in the particular case of dental regeneration.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Cell Biology and Histology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), 48940 Leioa, Spain.

ABSTRACT
The procurement of induced pluripotent stem cells, or IPS cells, from adult differentiated animal cells has the potential to revolutionize future medicine, where reprogrammed IPS cells may be used to repair disease-affected tissues on demand. The potential of IPS cell technology is tremendous, but it will be essential to improve the methodologies for IPS cell generation and to precisely evaluate each clone and subclone of IPS cells for their safety and efficacy. Additionally, the current state of knowledge on IPS cells advises that research on their regenerative properties is carried out in appropriate tissue and organ systems that permit a safe assessment of the long-term behavior of these reprogrammed cells. In the present paper, we discuss the mechanisms of cell reprogramming, current technical limitations of IPS cells for their use in human tissue engineering, and possibilities to overcome them in the particular case of dental regeneration.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus