Limits...
Cell Reprogramming, IPS Limitations, and Overcoming Strategies in Dental Bioengineering.

Ibarretxe G, Alvarez A, Cañavate ML, Hilario E, Aurrekoetxea M, Unda F - Stem Cells Int (2012)

Bottom Line: The potential of IPS cell technology is tremendous, but it will be essential to improve the methodologies for IPS cell generation and to precisely evaluate each clone and subclone of IPS cells for their safety and efficacy.Additionally, the current state of knowledge on IPS cells advises that research on their regenerative properties is carried out in appropriate tissue and organ systems that permit a safe assessment of the long-term behavior of these reprogrammed cells.In the present paper, we discuss the mechanisms of cell reprogramming, current technical limitations of IPS cells for their use in human tissue engineering, and possibilities to overcome them in the particular case of dental regeneration.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Cell Biology and Histology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), 48940 Leioa, Spain.

ABSTRACT
The procurement of induced pluripotent stem cells, or IPS cells, from adult differentiated animal cells has the potential to revolutionize future medicine, where reprogrammed IPS cells may be used to repair disease-affected tissues on demand. The potential of IPS cell technology is tremendous, but it will be essential to improve the methodologies for IPS cell generation and to precisely evaluate each clone and subclone of IPS cells for their safety and efficacy. Additionally, the current state of knowledge on IPS cells advises that research on their regenerative properties is carried out in appropriate tissue and organ systems that permit a safe assessment of the long-term behavior of these reprogrammed cells. In the present paper, we discuss the mechanisms of cell reprogramming, current technical limitations of IPS cells for their use in human tissue engineering, and possibilities to overcome them in the particular case of dental regeneration.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Stages and events of molar tooth development. Tooth morphogenesis is carried out by complex epithelium-ectomesenchyme interactions. Epithelial cells are depicted in gray and ectomesenchymal cells in red. As a consequence of sequential induction events, ameloblast (A) and odontoblast (O) cells start to differentiate at the interface between dental epithelium (de) and dental mesenchyme (dm) at the end of bell stage. Enamel (E) and dentin (D) tissues are secreted during the appositional stage, when the developing dental organ appears separated from the oral epithelium (oe). When enamel mineralization is completed, ameloblasts undergo regression, whereas odontoblasts will be maintained during the whole life of the tooth. The areas covered by squares are represented magnified below. Signaling centers during tooth morphogenesis are drawn as red circles: dental placode (dp), primary enamel knot (pek), and secondary enamel knot (sek). pA: preameloblasts; pO: preodontoblasts.
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fig2: Stages and events of molar tooth development. Tooth morphogenesis is carried out by complex epithelium-ectomesenchyme interactions. Epithelial cells are depicted in gray and ectomesenchymal cells in red. As a consequence of sequential induction events, ameloblast (A) and odontoblast (O) cells start to differentiate at the interface between dental epithelium (de) and dental mesenchyme (dm) at the end of bell stage. Enamel (E) and dentin (D) tissues are secreted during the appositional stage, when the developing dental organ appears separated from the oral epithelium (oe). When enamel mineralization is completed, ameloblasts undergo regression, whereas odontoblasts will be maintained during the whole life of the tooth. The areas covered by squares are represented magnified below. Signaling centers during tooth morphogenesis are drawn as red circles: dental placode (dp), primary enamel knot (pek), and secondary enamel knot (sek). pA: preameloblasts; pO: preodontoblasts.

Mentions: Importantly, once the deposition and maturation of tooth enamel is complete, ameloblastic cells will undergo a drastic regression, losing their elongated size and polarized state and mingling with adjacent epithelial cells to form the so-called “reduced enamel epithelium,” a transient coating structure that will end up disappearing at the moment of tooth eruption. The only epithelial cells that will remain in adult tooth structures are the epithelial cell rests of Malassez (ECRM), deriving from Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS), another transient structure involved in dental root formation. ECRMs play no known role in the adult tooth and appear as little cell clusters in the periodontal ligament. On the contrary, ectomesenchyme-derived odontoblasts and dental pulp tissues will persist throughout the tooth life well into adulthood (Figure 2).


Cell Reprogramming, IPS Limitations, and Overcoming Strategies in Dental Bioengineering.

Ibarretxe G, Alvarez A, Cañavate ML, Hilario E, Aurrekoetxea M, Unda F - Stem Cells Int (2012)

Stages and events of molar tooth development. Tooth morphogenesis is carried out by complex epithelium-ectomesenchyme interactions. Epithelial cells are depicted in gray and ectomesenchymal cells in red. As a consequence of sequential induction events, ameloblast (A) and odontoblast (O) cells start to differentiate at the interface between dental epithelium (de) and dental mesenchyme (dm) at the end of bell stage. Enamel (E) and dentin (D) tissues are secreted during the appositional stage, when the developing dental organ appears separated from the oral epithelium (oe). When enamel mineralization is completed, ameloblasts undergo regression, whereas odontoblasts will be maintained during the whole life of the tooth. The areas covered by squares are represented magnified below. Signaling centers during tooth morphogenesis are drawn as red circles: dental placode (dp), primary enamel knot (pek), and secondary enamel knot (sek). pA: preameloblasts; pO: preodontoblasts.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3368489&req=5

fig2: Stages and events of molar tooth development. Tooth morphogenesis is carried out by complex epithelium-ectomesenchyme interactions. Epithelial cells are depicted in gray and ectomesenchymal cells in red. As a consequence of sequential induction events, ameloblast (A) and odontoblast (O) cells start to differentiate at the interface between dental epithelium (de) and dental mesenchyme (dm) at the end of bell stage. Enamel (E) and dentin (D) tissues are secreted during the appositional stage, when the developing dental organ appears separated from the oral epithelium (oe). When enamel mineralization is completed, ameloblasts undergo regression, whereas odontoblasts will be maintained during the whole life of the tooth. The areas covered by squares are represented magnified below. Signaling centers during tooth morphogenesis are drawn as red circles: dental placode (dp), primary enamel knot (pek), and secondary enamel knot (sek). pA: preameloblasts; pO: preodontoblasts.
Mentions: Importantly, once the deposition and maturation of tooth enamel is complete, ameloblastic cells will undergo a drastic regression, losing their elongated size and polarized state and mingling with adjacent epithelial cells to form the so-called “reduced enamel epithelium,” a transient coating structure that will end up disappearing at the moment of tooth eruption. The only epithelial cells that will remain in adult tooth structures are the epithelial cell rests of Malassez (ECRM), deriving from Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS), another transient structure involved in dental root formation. ECRMs play no known role in the adult tooth and appear as little cell clusters in the periodontal ligament. On the contrary, ectomesenchyme-derived odontoblasts and dental pulp tissues will persist throughout the tooth life well into adulthood (Figure 2).

Bottom Line: The potential of IPS cell technology is tremendous, but it will be essential to improve the methodologies for IPS cell generation and to precisely evaluate each clone and subclone of IPS cells for their safety and efficacy.Additionally, the current state of knowledge on IPS cells advises that research on their regenerative properties is carried out in appropriate tissue and organ systems that permit a safe assessment of the long-term behavior of these reprogrammed cells.In the present paper, we discuss the mechanisms of cell reprogramming, current technical limitations of IPS cells for their use in human tissue engineering, and possibilities to overcome them in the particular case of dental regeneration.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Cell Biology and Histology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), 48940 Leioa, Spain.

ABSTRACT
The procurement of induced pluripotent stem cells, or IPS cells, from adult differentiated animal cells has the potential to revolutionize future medicine, where reprogrammed IPS cells may be used to repair disease-affected tissues on demand. The potential of IPS cell technology is tremendous, but it will be essential to improve the methodologies for IPS cell generation and to precisely evaluate each clone and subclone of IPS cells for their safety and efficacy. Additionally, the current state of knowledge on IPS cells advises that research on their regenerative properties is carried out in appropriate tissue and organ systems that permit a safe assessment of the long-term behavior of these reprogrammed cells. In the present paper, we discuss the mechanisms of cell reprogramming, current technical limitations of IPS cells for their use in human tissue engineering, and possibilities to overcome them in the particular case of dental regeneration.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus