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Sprouty genes are essential for the normal development of epibranchial ganglia in the mouse embryo.

Simrick S, Lickert H, Basson MA - Dev. Biol. (2011)

Bottom Line: Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signalling has important roles in the development of the embryonic pharyngeal (branchial) arches, but its effects on innervation of the arches and associated structures have not been studied extensively.However, epithelial-specific gene deletion only results in defects in the facial nerve and not the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves, suggesting that the facial nerve is most sensitive to perturbations in RTK signalling.Reducing the Fgf8 gene dosage only partially rescued defects in the glossopharyngeal nerve and was not sufficient to rescue facial nerve defects, suggesting that FGF8 is functionally redundant with other RTK ligands during facial nerve development.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Craniofacial Development, King's College London, Floor 27, Guy's Tower, London, SE1 9RT, UK.

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2D lateral pharyngeal arch measurements. E9.5 embryos were photographed using a Nikon SMZ1500 microscope at a resolution of 2560 × 1920 pixels. Images were cropped as indicated by the square around the embryo and the height of all embryo images set as 7 cm at 300dpi to allow a direct comparison to be made between embryos of slightly different stages of development and sizes. Adobe Photoshop (Adobe Systems Incorporated) was used to measure 2D pharyngeal arch area in pixels (as indicated in the inset: first pharyngeal arch in red, second pharyngeal arch in blue). Statistical analysis was performed using the D'Agostino and Pearson omnibus normality test, the unpaired two-tailed t-test and the two-tailed Mann–Whitney test as applicable (Prism 5, Graphpad software Inc).
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f0040: 2D lateral pharyngeal arch measurements. E9.5 embryos were photographed using a Nikon SMZ1500 microscope at a resolution of 2560 × 1920 pixels. Images were cropped as indicated by the square around the embryo and the height of all embryo images set as 7 cm at 300dpi to allow a direct comparison to be made between embryos of slightly different stages of development and sizes. Adobe Photoshop (Adobe Systems Incorporated) was used to measure 2D pharyngeal arch area in pixels (as indicated in the inset: first pharyngeal arch in red, second pharyngeal arch in blue). Statistical analysis was performed using the D'Agostino and Pearson omnibus normality test, the unpaired two-tailed t-test and the two-tailed Mann–Whitney test as applicable (Prism 5, Graphpad software Inc).

Mentions: 2D lateral pharyngeal arch area was measured using pictures taken on a Nikon SMZ1500 microscope at a resolution of 2560 × 1920 pixels. Measurements were normalised to the total embryo length to account for variations in embryonic size as indicated in Suppl. Fig. 2. Adobe Photoshop (Adobe Systems Incorporated) was used to measure 2D pharyngeal arch area in pixels. Statistical analysis included the D'Agostino and Pearson omnibus normality test, the unpaired two-tailed t-test and the two-tailed Mann–Whitney test (Prism 5, Graphpad software Inc).


Sprouty genes are essential for the normal development of epibranchial ganglia in the mouse embryo.

Simrick S, Lickert H, Basson MA - Dev. Biol. (2011)

2D lateral pharyngeal arch measurements. E9.5 embryos were photographed using a Nikon SMZ1500 microscope at a resolution of 2560 × 1920 pixels. Images were cropped as indicated by the square around the embryo and the height of all embryo images set as 7 cm at 300dpi to allow a direct comparison to be made between embryos of slightly different stages of development and sizes. Adobe Photoshop (Adobe Systems Incorporated) was used to measure 2D pharyngeal arch area in pixels (as indicated in the inset: first pharyngeal arch in red, second pharyngeal arch in blue). Statistical analysis was performed using the D'Agostino and Pearson omnibus normality test, the unpaired two-tailed t-test and the two-tailed Mann–Whitney test as applicable (Prism 5, Graphpad software Inc).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3368431&req=5

f0040: 2D lateral pharyngeal arch measurements. E9.5 embryos were photographed using a Nikon SMZ1500 microscope at a resolution of 2560 × 1920 pixels. Images were cropped as indicated by the square around the embryo and the height of all embryo images set as 7 cm at 300dpi to allow a direct comparison to be made between embryos of slightly different stages of development and sizes. Adobe Photoshop (Adobe Systems Incorporated) was used to measure 2D pharyngeal arch area in pixels (as indicated in the inset: first pharyngeal arch in red, second pharyngeal arch in blue). Statistical analysis was performed using the D'Agostino and Pearson omnibus normality test, the unpaired two-tailed t-test and the two-tailed Mann–Whitney test as applicable (Prism 5, Graphpad software Inc).
Mentions: 2D lateral pharyngeal arch area was measured using pictures taken on a Nikon SMZ1500 microscope at a resolution of 2560 × 1920 pixels. Measurements were normalised to the total embryo length to account for variations in embryonic size as indicated in Suppl. Fig. 2. Adobe Photoshop (Adobe Systems Incorporated) was used to measure 2D pharyngeal arch area in pixels. Statistical analysis included the D'Agostino and Pearson omnibus normality test, the unpaired two-tailed t-test and the two-tailed Mann–Whitney test (Prism 5, Graphpad software Inc).

Bottom Line: Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signalling has important roles in the development of the embryonic pharyngeal (branchial) arches, but its effects on innervation of the arches and associated structures have not been studied extensively.However, epithelial-specific gene deletion only results in defects in the facial nerve and not the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves, suggesting that the facial nerve is most sensitive to perturbations in RTK signalling.Reducing the Fgf8 gene dosage only partially rescued defects in the glossopharyngeal nerve and was not sufficient to rescue facial nerve defects, suggesting that FGF8 is functionally redundant with other RTK ligands during facial nerve development.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Craniofacial Development, King's College London, Floor 27, Guy's Tower, London, SE1 9RT, UK.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus